External Danger and Democracy: Old Nordic Lessons and New European Challenges
Nordic democracies have been impressively able to survive and cope with external danger during and after World War II, paradoxically through the curtailment of democracy. According to sociological theory, external danger typically leads to internal cohesion and centralization. This book investigates how far the general theory reaches beyond the classic Nordic cases. Is the theory also relevant in the face of dangers prevailing in post-Cold War Europe? What about the danger to the basic autonomy of EU members from the European Union that they have chosen to join voluntarily? Although the EU, including its Commission, is a peculiar entity in a historical perspective, it actually tends to encourage a good deal of conventional danger responses at the national level: top level centralization of decision-making, bureaucratic centralization and party cohesion. Not least the Nordic countries seem to apply their classic danger lessons a bit uncritically during the new circumstances.
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Facing Classic Dangers
Three Candidate Deviant Cases
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actors actually Adelsohn affairs autonomy Bildt Brussels bureaucratic cabinet Centre Party challenge Christiansson civil servants coalition cohesion-centralization Commission Communists conflict consensus coordination Coser Council of Ministers countries Czechoslovak danger increase Danish decision decision-makers democracy Denmark dimension of self-control EC/EU economic entail Europe European European Parliament external danger Finland Finnish Foreign Ministry foreign policy France German Goldmann ibid infringements interests involved issue-areas Karvonen legitimacy lobbying Maastricht Treaty member-countries membership mobilization of self-control Moreover Mouritzen nation-states Nazi negotiation neo-realism Nissen Nordic Nordic countries organizations Palme Parliament parliamentary control party cohesion popular cohesion position prime minister proposition question referendum regarding regime values relation relevant role Schendelen sector ministries seems self-imposed Single European Act situation Social Democratic solidarity reward Soviet Union specific stake strategy strengthened submarine subunits Svenska Dagbladet Sweden Swedish theoretical theory threat threatened type of danger unipolarity Vichy Vichy France vis-a-vis voting