Encyclopedia of African American business history
Black business activity has been sustained in America for almost four centuries. From the marketing and trading activities of African slaves in Colonial America to the rise of 20th-century black corporate America, African American participation in self-employed economic activities has been a persistent theme in the black experience. Yet, unlike other topics in African American history, the study of black business has been limited. General reference sources on the black experience--with their emphasis on social, cultural, and political life--provide little information on topics related to the history of black business. This invaluable encyclopedia is the only reference source providing information on the broad range of topics that illuminate black business history. Providing readily accessible information on the black business experience, the encyclopedia provides an overview of black business activities, and underscores the existence of a historic tradition of black American business participation. Entries range from biographies of black business people to overview surveys of business activities from the 1600s to the 1990s, including slave and free black business activities and the Black Wallstreet to coverage of black women's business activities, and discussions of such African American specific industries as catering, funeral enterprises, insurance, and hair care and cosmetic products. Also, there are entries on blacks in the automotive parts industry, black investment banks, black companies listed on the stock market, blacks and corporate America, civil rights and black business, and black athletes and business activities.
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Chronology of Black Business History
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African American African American business antebellum Anthony Overton Association Atlanta barber became black banks black business black community Black Enterprise black entrepreneurs black women business activities capital catering Chicago Church civil rights College Colored economic Elijah Muhammad entrepreneurs entrepreneurship entry established federal film firms founded free black funds funeral HBCUs Illinois increased industry institutions Insurance Company investment James Forten John Johnson Juliet E. K. Walker Kwanzaa labor largest leading black League Madame C. J. Walker major manufacturing million minority NAACP Nation of Islam National Negro Negro Business North Carolina number of black operated organization owners ownership participation percent Philadelphia plantation president Press profits programs Publishing purchased race racial real estate SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Shorebank slavery slaves social Society sold South successful trade twentieth century United University urban venture Virginia W.E.B. Du Bois Washington William York