The English Gerund-participle: A Comparison with the Infinitive
There is considerable confusion regarding the English suffix « ing, which is usually treated as « progressive. The sentence « I regret telling him shows, however, that this is not always the case. The very same form can sometimes evoke an ongoing process and sometimes a completed action. This book brings much-needed clarity to this area of English grammar, proposing a simple coherent explanation based on meaning. ESL teachers will find it a valuable contribution to the « focus on form approach. It will also be of interest to linguists as it addresses the problems of tense and control that have been the object of considerable debate.
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Seeking to Define the Meaning of the ing Form
Reconstructing the Schematic Meaning of the ing Form
The Meaning of to
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absolute free adjunct action actualization adjective adverbial analysis anaphor aspectual verbs attributive begin British National Corpus Brown University Corpus cease complement event conceived Consequently construed contexts continue corresponds David Coulthard defined direct object distinction durative aspect English enjoyed entity event denoted event expressed event-originator evokes an event examples explain expressive effect fact factivity Freed gerund-participle Hamawand hypothesis imperfective implies importing oil impression infinitival infinitive construction infinitive's event ing's event involved is/was Jespersen Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen Corpus latter lexeme lexical meaning linguistic main verb main verb's event matrix verb metonymic Middle English nominal non-realized notion of movement noun phrase observed occurrence opposition paraphrase participle perform predicate prepositional phrase problem produce progressive construction pronoun proposed realization remember represented semantic content sense sentence simple form situation speaker stative stop subject complement temporal relation tense to-infinitive construction to-infinitive phrase usage verb phrase verbal verbs of effort verbs referring