Ecology of Harmful Algae (Google eBook)

Front Cover
E. GranÚli, Jefferson T. Turner
Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 4, 2007 - Nature - 416 pages
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Harmful algal blooms are one of the consequences of the human impact on aquatic ecosystems, particularly the process of eutrophication. They can cause a variety of deleterious effects, including the poisoning of fish and shellfish, habitat disruptions for many organisms, water discolouration, beach fouling, and even toxic effects for humans.

This volume is a comprehensive synthesis of the latest research achievements concerning harmful algae (HA) ecology. International experts provide an in-depth analysis of HA topics including: global distribution, ecology of major HA groups, ecology and physiology of HA, HA and the food web, studying and mitigating HA, the human impact on HA and HA impact on human activity. This volume is an invaluable source of information for researchers in HA ecology as well as for advanced students, lecturers, and environmental managers.

  

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Contents

An Introduction to Harmful Algae
3
References
7
Molecular Taxonomy of Harmful Algae
9
22 Dinophyta Dinoflagellates
10
222 Dinophysis
11
224 Protoperidinium Prorocentrum
12
225 Karenia Karlodinium Takayama
13
226 Amphidinium Cochlodinium Gyrodinium
14
Molecular Physiology of Toxin Production and Growth Regulation in Harmful Algae
215
172 Phycotoxin Biosynthesis
216
173 Growth and Regulation of Toxin Production
217
174 Toxin Production Through the Cell Cycle
219
175 Molecular Approaches to Growth and Toxin Expression
220
176 Current and Future Perspectives
223
References
226
Chemical and Physical Factors Influencing Toxin Content
229

232 Microcystis
15
233 Trichodesmium
16
24 Bacillariophyta Diatoms
17
References
18
The Biogeography of Harmful Algae
23
311 Genetic Variation
24
32 Biogeographical Distribution
25
33 Distribution of Harmful Species
26
332 Diatoms
27
333 Haptophytes
29
335 Cyanobacteria
31
References
32
Importance of Life Cycles in the Ecology of Harmful Microalgae
37
42 Phases of Phytoplankton Bloom Development and Life Cycles
39
422 Growth and Maintenance
41
423 DispersalDissipationTermination
44
44 Status of Knowledge and Direction Needed
45
References
47
The Ecology of Harmful Dinoflagellates
53
52 General Ecology
54
522 Temperature Light Salinity and Turbulence
55
the Continuum from Auxotrophy to Parasitism
56
53 Blooms Including Toxic Outbreaks
59
54 Human Influences
60
55 Conceptual Frameworks to Advance Understanding
61
References
64
The Ecology of Harmful Flagellates Within Prymnesiophyceae and Raphidophyceae
67
622 Distribution and Abundance
68
623 Autecology and Ecophysiology
69
624 Toxicity and Toxins
70
625 Ecological Strategies
71
63 Class Raphidophyceae Division Heterokontophyta
72
632 Distribution and Abundance
73
633 Autecology and Ecophysiology
74
634 Toxicity
75
References
77
The Ecology of Harmful Diatoms
81
72 ToxinProducing Diatoms Genus Pseudonitzschia
82
73 Domoic Acid in the Marine Food Web
83
74 Physiological Ecology of Pseudonitzschia spp
84
75 Molecular Tools for Studying Pseudonitzschia
86
76 Conclusions and Directions for Future Research
87
References
88
Ecology of Harmful Cyanobacteria
95
82 Environmental Factors Controlling CyanoHABs
97
Salinity and Turbulence
102
83 CyanoHAB Interactions with MicroMacroorganisms
104
84 CyanoHAB Management
106
References
107
Brown Tides
111
92 Nutrients and Physical Factors
113
93 Sources of Cell Mortality
117
References
120
Harmful Algal Bloom Dynamics in Relation to Physical Processes
127
From Diffusion to Advection
128
103 LifeForms
129
104 Algal Communities
130
105 Retention and Transport
131
1052 Transport
133
References
136
Ecological Aspects of Harmful Algal In Situ Population Growth Rates
139
112 Ecological Interpretation of In Situ Growth Rate Measurements
140
113 In Situ Growth Rates Variation Among Taxonomic Groups
143
114 Are Harmful Algal Species r or KStrategists?
147
115 Conclusions
149
Harmful Algae and Cell Death
153
122 Mortality of HABs
156
123 Death Due to HABs
157
124 Mechanisms to Avoid Cell Mortality
158
125 Ecological Implications
159
References
160
The Diverse Nutrient Strategies of Harmful Algae Focus on Osmotrophy
163
132 Osmotrophy Pathways and Methods to Explore Them
164
133 Cellular Costs and Benefits of Osmotrophy
167
134 Ecological Significance of Osmotrophy
168
135 A Comment on Evolutionary Aspects of Osmotrophy
170
136 Conclusions
171
Phagotrophy in Harmful Algae
177
142 Phagotrophy and its Advantages
180
143 Relationship of Phagotrophy to Toxicity
182
144 Significance of Phagotrophy
184
References
185
Allelopathy in Harmful Algae A Mechanism to Compete for Resources?
189
153 Which Toxins are Involved in the Allelopathic Effects?
192
154 Influence of Abiotic and Biotic Factors on Allelopathy
194
1542 Biotic Factors
196
155 Ecological Significance of Allelopathy in Marine Ecosystems
198
References
199
Trace Metals and Harmful Algal Blooms
203
162 Chemistry and Availability of Metals
204
163 Trace Metals as Limiting Nutrients
205
164 Trace Metal Toxicity
207
Domoic Acid Production in Pseudonitzschia
208
166 Trace Metal Effects on Other HAB Species
210
References
211
183 Physical Factors Influencing Toxin Content
230
184 Inorganic Nutrients and Toxin Content
231
185 Organic Matter and Toxin Content
237
186 Conclusions
238
References
239
Relationships Between Bacteria and Harmful Algae
243
192 Diversity of AlgalAssociated Bacteria
244
1922 SpatioTemporal Relationships Between Bacteria and Algae
246
193 Bacterial Influences on Algal Growth Metabolism and Toxins
247
1932 The Role of Bacteria in Toxin Production
248
1933 BacteriallyMediated Release and Metabolism of Algal Toxins
249
194 Potential Implications of Interactions Among Bacteria
250
195 Future DirectionsResearch NeedsCritical Questions
251
References
252
Harmful Algae Interactions with Marine Planktonic Grazers
259
202 Planktonic Grazers
260
2022 Tintinnids and Aloricate Ciliates
261
2024 Copepods and other Mesozooplankton
262
203 HAB Toxin Accumulation in Zooplankton
263
205 Impact of Zooplankton Grazing on Formation and Termination of HA Blooms
264
206 Conclusions
265
References
266
Pathogens of Harmful Microalgae
271
2121 Host Specificity
273
2132 Ecology of Algicidal Bacteria and Harmful Microalgae
274
2133 Seaweed Beds as Prevention of HABs
275
2141 Host Specificity
276
2151 Host Specificity
278
216 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
279
References
280
Phycotoxin Pathways in Aquatic Food Webs Transfer Accumulation and Degradation
283
223 Zooplankton
285
224 Bivalves
286
225 Benthic Invertebrates NonBivalves
287
226 Fishes
288
227 Seabirds and Marine Mammals
289
228 Summary and Conclusions
290
References
293
Molecular Approaches to the Study of Phytoplankton Life Cycles Implications for Harmful Algal Bloom Ecology
299
233 Nuclear Staining to Determine Ploidy and Growth Rates
301
234 Genomic Approaches to Identifying Mitotic and Meiotic Life Cycle Stages
302
235 Measuring Genetic Recombination During Sexual Reproduction
305
237 Conclusions
307
Laboratory and Field Applications of Ribosomal RNA Probes to Aid the Detection and Monitoring of Harmful Algae
311
242 Ribosomal RNA Sequences as Markers for Phylogenetic Studies and Species Identification
312
2431 TSAFISH for Flow Cytometry
314
2432 TSAFISH for SolidPhase Cytometry
315
244 Detecting Many Species Simultaneously Using DNA Probe Arrays
316
2442 Handheld Array Device That Uses ElectroChemical Detection
318
2443 DNA Probe Arrays for Autonomous Detection of Species Using the Environmental Sample Processor ESP
319
245 Conclusions
320
References
321
Mitigation and Controls of HABs
327
252 Mitigation Strategies and Control of HABs
328
2522 Direct and Indirect Bloom Controls
329
2523 Contingency Plans for Fish Culture
334
253 Conclusions
335
The Complex Relationships Between Increases in Fertilization of the Earth Coastal Eutrophication and Proliferation of Harmful Algal Blooms
341
Basic Conceptual Framework
343
264 Nutrient Loading Nutrient Composition and HABs
344
265 Factors Complicating the Relationship Between Eutrophication and HABs
347
266 Conclusions
350
References
351
TopDown Predation Control on Marine Harmful Algae
355
272 Topdown Predators
357
2722 Ctenophores
358
273 Case Studies
359
2732 Mesocosm Studies
360
274 Conclusions
362
References
363
Climate Change and Harmful Algal Blooms
367
282 Evidence from the Past
369
283 Results from Plankton Records
370
284 Results from the Sedimentary Record of Dinoflagellate Cysts
372
285 Conclusions
375
References
376
Anthropogenic Introductions of Microalgae
379
292 Vector Surveys for Microalgae
380
293 Evidence for Successful Establishment of NonIndigenous Microalgae
381
2933 Increasing Molecular Evidence
382
294 Management Options to Reduce Risk of Introductions
383
2942 Ballast Water Exchange Studies on Phytoplankton
384
2943 Treatment Options
386
295 Conclusions
388
The Economic Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms
391
302 Scientific Concerns
392
304 Why Measure Economic Losses?
393
305 Economic Losses
394
306 Economic Impacts
397
307 Estimates of National Economic Effects
398
308 Conclusions
401
References
402
Subject Index
403
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