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anthracite appear basin beds of coal bituminous bottom burning called cannel coal carboniferous chaldrons clay coal district coal field coal formation coal measures coal mines coal strata coal trade coke collieries combustion common commonly considerable corfe corves Davy lamp deposits depth distance Durham duty dykes earth explosion exported fathoms feet fire fire damp fossil fuel geological geologists heat hostmen hundred immense importance inches inflammable iron ironstone John Pit keels lamp lignites limestone London main coal mass means mentioned miles mineral nature neighbourhood Newcastle Northumberland occur origin peat persons pit-coal pitmen plants port portion present produced quantity remarks river rocks sandstone Scotland seam shaft shale ships side sometimes South species Staffordshire Staith strata stratum substance supposed surface thickness tion tons town Tyne various vegetable matter vessels waggons Wallsend White post Whitehaven wood workmen writer yards Yorkshire
Page 354 - The manner of the carriage is by laying rails of timber from the colliery down to the river, exactly straight and parallel ; and bulky carts are made with four rowlets fitting these rails ; whereby the carriage is so easy that one horse will draw down four or five chaldron of coals, and is an immense benefit to the coal merchants.
Page 349 - Another thing that is remarkable is their wayleaves, for when men have pieces of ground between the colliery and the river they sell leave to lead coals over their ground, and so dear that the owner of a rood of ground will expect £20 per annum for this leave.
Page 48 - One interesting circumstance attending the history of peatmosses is the high state of preservation of animal substances buried in them for periods of many years. In June, 1747, the body of a woman was found six feet deep, in a peatmoor in the Isle of Axholm, in Lincolnshire. The antique sandals on her feet afforded evidence of her having been buried there for many ages ; yet her nails, hair, and skin, are described as having shown hardly any marks of decay.
Page 257 - Pit gin, being on a crane not within the influence of the blast, were fortunately preserved. The coal dust, ejected from the William Pit into the drift or horizontal parts of the tube, was about three inches thick, and soon burnt to a light cinder. Pieces of burning coal, driven off the solid stratum of the mine, were also blown up this shaft.* " As soon as the explosion was heard, the wives and children of the workmen ran to the working-pit.
Page 257 - ... of horror, anxiety, and grief. The .machine being rendered useless by the eruption, the rope of the gin was sent down the pit with all expedition. In the absence of horses, a number of men, whom the wish to be instrumental in rescuing their neighbours from their perilous situation, seemed to supply with strength proportionate to the urgency of the occasion, put their shoulders to the starts or shafts of the gin, and wrought it with astonishing expedition.
Page 29 - I believe incontestably established. To Mr. Lyell is eminently due the merit of having awakened us to a sense of our error in this respect. The vast mass of evidence which he has brought together, in illustration of what may be called Diurnal Geology, convinces me that if, five thousand years ago, a Deluge did sweep over the entire globe, its traces can no longer be distinguished from more modern and local disturbances.
Page 254 - Materials used for securing Marsh or Sea Walls or Banks, and of Persons maliciously setting on fire any Mine, Pit or Delph of Coal or Cannel Coal, and of Persons unlawfully hunting or taking any Red or Fallow Deer in Forests or Chases, or beating or wounding Keepers or other Officers in Forests, Chases or Parks ; and for more effectually securing the Breed of Wild Fowl...
Page 169 - The intervening portions of more recent ice, by which they are held together, represent the clay and rubbish that fill the faults, and form the partition walls that insulate these adjacent portions of strata which were originally formed, like the sheet of ice, in one continuous plane.
Page 412 - The heat which the oven acquires in the former operation is always sufficient of itself to light up the new charge, the combustion of which is accelerated by the atmospheric air that rushes in through the joints of the loose bricks in the doorway. In two or three hours, the combustion gets to such a height that they find it necessary to check the influx of atmospheric air. The doorway is now plastered up with a mixture of wet soil and sand, except the top row of bricks, which is left unplastered...
Page 412 - When these ovens are once heated, the work goes on night and day without interruption, and without any further expense of fuel. It is conducted thus: — Small refuse coal is thrown in at the circular opening on the top, sufficient to fill the oven up to the springing...