Steam power (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Longmans, Green, and Co., 1915 - Steam engineering - 760 pages
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Contents

Heat energy streams
43
Thermal efficiency possible
50
The laws of thermodynamics
53
CHAPTER II
54
Mountings required for the safe working of a boiler
63
The general action of a steam boiler
73
Draught
75
Chimney draught
77
The steam blast
82
Fuels
89
Combustion of coal
92
Rate of combustion Excess air
93
Calorific value The combustion of certain definite chemical com
96
SECT PAdK 23 Determination of the calorific value of a fuel experimentally
99
Calculation from the ultimate analysis of a fuel of the theoretical air supply the weight of the products of combustion and the calorific value The high...
100
Temperature in the furnace
107
Determination of the air supply from an analysis of the flue gas and an analysis of the fuel
109
Construction of a heat balancesheet for the heating circuit
113
ExampleHeat balancesheet for the heating circuit of a compound locomotive
117
Boiler efficiency Furnace efficiency
120
The efficiency of transmission
124
Conductivity of the elements in the path of flow
129
On the influence of the velocity of flow of the furnaco gases
132
On the breaking up of the water film
133
CHAPTER III
141
Some points in the thermodynamics of a perfect gas
144
Application of the first law of thermodynamics to a perfect gas
145
On the difference of the specific heats
148
Form of the expansion curve and the heat received during the isothermal expansion of a perfect gas
149
Form of the expansion curve during the adiabatic expansion of a perfect gas Expressions for the work area
150
Change of temperature during an adiabatic change of state of a perfect gas
151
The Carnot cycle with air as the working agent
152
The Carnot cycle with vapour as the working agent
155
Absolute temperature
158
General thermodynamic relations
160
General expressions for the principal thermodynamic relations
164
The characteristic equation for a vapour and Callendars equation for steam
170
Expressions for the specific heats the total energy the internal onergy and the entropy of steam for the total energy and the entropy of water and for t...
173
The steam tables and the total energy temperature diagram
182
The formation of dry saturated steam at constant pressure
183
Wet steam
187
The adiabatic expansion of steam
190
Work per pound of steam The Rankine cycle
194
Use of the Rankine cycle as a standard of comparison for the perform ance of actual steam engines
197
Diagram showing the properties of steam
200
The total energy temperature diagram
202
The entropy temperature diagram
207
The total energyentropy diagram The Mollier diagram
214
Irreversible processes
216
CHAPTER IV
220
Wire drawing
221
Clearance and compression
224
The missing quantity
227
The wall action and the condensation area
232
Maximum condensation per cyole 286
236
Application of the method of condensation areas to an engine trial
240
The calculation of the flow of heat into a cylinder wall assuming that the temperature variation on the wall surface is a simple harmonic function of t...
243
Influences which modify the magnitude of the missing quantity
249
Compound expansion
253
Example The combination of diagrams
258
The compound marine engine
262
The compound locomotive
265
CHAPTER IX
267
The use of superheated steam
272
TABLE PAGE
275
Expansion curves and heat exchange
280
Cylinder volume for given power and speed
285
Cylinder volumes Compound engines
291
Efficiencies obtained in practice
298
CHAPTER V
304
Heat rejected in the condenser per pound of steam
307
Jet condensers 809
309
On the evaporation of water into and the condensation of water from air
311
Influence of air in the condenser on the pressure in the condenser
315
Wet and dry air pumps 817
317
Types of condensing plants
318
Rate of condensation in a surface condenser
320
CHAPTER VI
323
Examples of characteristic energy diagrams
325
The indicated horsepower is a linear function of x
326
Standard I H P lines for steady running
329
Maximum value of x and the intensity of transmission and the rate at which energy can be introduced into the cylinders
331
SECT PAOK 96 Introduction
334
Relation between the pressure in the cylinder and the turning couple on the crank shaft
335
The velocity and the acceleration of the piston
337
The calculation of the turning couple L
343
The determination of the turning couple graphically
344
Crank effort diagrams
345
The flywheel
349
General theory of the flywheel
354
Representation of a crank effort curve by a Fourier series
359
Combination of crank effort curves and the fluctuation of energy
361
Governors
368
Speed of equilibrium
371
Forms of the equations used to represent tho total frictional resistance of a train in terms of the speed
419
Rate at which energy is spent at the drawbar Vehicle resistance
421
Engine resistance
426
On the values of the constants A B C and a general expression for engine resistance
428
pounds 96
432
The indicated horsepower as a funotion of the speed
433
General summary
442
Tractive force
444
ExampleTractive forcespeed diagram
447
Engina resistance
451
Characteristic dynamical diagram for the motion of a train
452
The reduction of the data from a dynamometercar record to the curves of the diagram
459
Engine Dog Star 460 Simple Observed drawbar pull and speed
461
Braking
462
Tension on a drawbar due to unequal braking of engine and train
467
Characteristic dynamical diagram for a train stopping from a speed of 60 miles per hour
468
The values of the coefficients of friction between castiron brake blocks
471
The resistance due to the angular acceleration of the wheels and axles
472
The integraph
475
SKCT PAOI 132 Application of Newtons laws to the balancing of engines
479
Forces produced on the frame by the rotation of a single mass
480
The balancing of any number of given masses by the addition of masses placed in two given planes
483
Nomenclature
484
Typical example
485
To find the unbalanced force and the unbalanced couple with respect to a given reference plane due to a system of masses rotating at a given speed
487
Conditions which must be satisfied by a given systom of masses so that they may be in balance amongst themselves
488
Experimental apparatus
489
Elimination of the connecting rod
494
General method of procedure for balancing an engine when the motion of the reciprocating parts may be considered simple harmonic
495
Experimental apparatus
499
The balancing of twocylinder locomotives
500
A standard set of reciprocating parts
501
Scales
503
The balancing of a twocylinder inside single locomotive
504
The balancing of threecylinder locomotives
505
The balancing of fourcylinder locomotives
508
Completely balanced fourcylinder locomotive
510
Comparative schedule
511
On the bending moment produced on the crank shaft by the unbalanced masses
516
Secondary balanoingThe YarrowSchliokTweedy enginu
517
CHAPTER X
525
The slide valve
530
The single eccentric valve gear
533
Example Rectangular valve diagram
537
Tho Zeuner diagram
539
The Reuleaux diagram
541
The Bilgram diagram
543
Problems
544
Valve gears with independent cutoff valves
545
Forms of slide valve
552
Reversing and expansion gears
559
The link motion
560
Link motion valvediagram
562
Apparatus for drawing valve displacement curves mechanically
567
The design of a link motion
572
Resolution of the valve displacement curve into two components
574
The VValschaerts reversing gear
576
The Hackworth gear
578
The Joy gear
581
Reversing hy the interchange of the steam and exhaust
583
CHAPTER XI
585
Relation between discharge and area
587
Form of nozzle for frictionless adiabatic flow
588
General relations relating to frictionless adiabatic flow
594
Summary of equations relating to frictionless adiabatic flow
604
Frictionally resisted adiabatic flow
606
Ejectors and injectors
613
CHAPTER XII
617
Elementary turbine pairs Impulse and reaction pairs Steam turbines
619
Rate at which work is done by a pair
624
Shape of blades and blade channels
627
Axial velocity of flow
633
Conditions of maximum rate of working
635
General expression for the efficiency of an impulse pair
637
Efficiency of a reaction pair
639
On the blade velocity v and the value of A Compound turbines
641
Division of the pressure range Efficiency of a chain of pairs
643
General design of a chain of reaction pairs to utilize a given heat fall
647
Chains of impulse pairs Compounding the velocity within a pressure range
654
General construction of a compound impulse turbine Impulse blading
663
Impulse pair in which the velooity is compounded along the circum ference of one wheel
666
The De Laval turbine
667
The Parsons steam turbine
672
The balance of the steam thrust in the direction of flow
675
Mechanical details
678
20i Parsons vacuum augmenter
679
The marine steam turbino
680
Geared turbines
683
The Curtis turbine
685
The A E G impulse turbine
689
Exhaust steam turbines Mixedpressure turbines
691
Examples
693
AppendixSteam Tables
735
Indus
745

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 479 - Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, except in so far as it is compelled by force to change that state.
Page 479 - To every action there is always an equal and contrary reaction; or, the mutual actions of any two bodies are always equal and oppositely directed in the same straight line.
Page 228 - I perceived, that in order to make the best use of steam, it was necessary, first, that the cylinder should be maintained always as hot as the steam which entered it; and secondly, that when the steam was condensed, the water of which it was composed, and the injection itself, should be cooled down to 100, or lower, where that was possible.
Page 148 - Y is the thermo-dynamic index of the gas, or the ratio between the specific heat at constant pressure and the specific heat at constant volume.
Page 125 - ... proportional to the difference between the fourth powers of the absolute temperatures of the hot parts of the furnace and the boiler plate.
Page 154 - The motive power of heat is independent of the agents employed to realize it ; its quantity is fixed solely by the temperatures of the bodies between which is effected, finally, the transfer of the caloric.
Page 141 - Carnot here, and throughout his reasoning, makes a fundamental assumption, which he states as follows: " When a body has undergone any changes and after a certain number of transformations is brought back identically to its original state, considered relatively to density, temperature and mode of aggregation, it must contain the same quantity of heat as it contained originally.
Page 76 - In the above expressions, p is the absolute pressure in pounds per square foot, v is the volume in cubic feet, and T is the absolute temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.
Page 161 - E + ^yJ as the sum of the internal energy and the product of the pressure and volume, expressed in heat units, corresponding to the state.
Page 482 - A plane through the fixed point 0, at right angles to the axis of rotation, and revolving with it, will be called the reference plane. It contains both the force at the fixed point...

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