Texts and Contexts of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions

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BRILL, Jan 1, 2003 - Social Science - 383 pages
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This volume gathers all older fuşark inscriptions found in Denmark, Germany, England, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Hungary, Bosnia, Rumania, Norway and Sweden. It contains essays on early runic writing, the historical and archaeological contexts of runic objects, and a new theory on the origin of runic writing. The book contains also a catalogue of the runic inscriptions found in the regions mentioned above. The catalogue gives datings, readings and interpretations, plus limited graphic, orthographic and linguistic analyses of the inscriptions from the above mentioned corpora, complete with concise bibliographical references. The overall aim has been to provide the reader with a practical survey of the oldest inscripti-ons from the aforementioned areas, together with relevant archaeological and cultural-historical data. The book is particularly useful for runologists, students and others interested in runes, such as archaeologists, historians, linguists and amateurs. It is actually a handbook covering all older runic inscriptions and their context.
  

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Contents

CHAPTER ONE RUNES RUNOLOGY AND RUNOLOGISTS 1 Introduction
1
History of runic research
2
The fuark and the rune names
5
The meaning of the word rune
7
Points of departure
8
England and the Netherlands
11
Denmark
12
The Scandinavian peninsula
13
ornamental runes runecrosses multipleline runes and mirrorrunes
131
The influence of Latin
133
Syntaxis and division marks
134
On the significance of runeforms
135
The yew rune
138
The fate of the j rune Gmc jam OE ger jar
142
CATALOGUE
147
CHAPTER FIVE EARLY DANISH AND SOUTHEAST EUROPEAN RUNIC INSCRIPTIONS 1 Introduction
149

Diagnostic runeforms
14
Methods
15
Division into runic periods
18
On the graphic rendering of runes findspots transliterations
21
CHAPTER Two HISTORY ARCHAEOLOGY AND RUNES 1 Introduction
27
From the preRoman Iron Age to the lateGermanic Iron Age
30
The emergence of an elite
31
Votive deposits in the Danish bogs
37
Bracteates
40
Denmark and the Goths in Southcast Europe
45
The Continent
48
The Breza column Bosnia and its fuark inscription
50
England
62
The Netherlands
68
The Borgharen find and its Merovingian context
74
CHAPTER THREE ON THE ORIGIN OF RUNES 1 Introduction
78
The quest
79
Runes and Romans on the Rhine
82
More Roman connections
88
The first runewriters
93
The West Germanic hypothesis
94
Conclusions
99
Some thoughts on the development of the runic writing system
101
CHAPTER FOUR SUMMARY AND SOME CONCLUSIONS 1 Classification of contents
105
Runic writing and runewriters
106
Some backgrounds of early runic writing
107
Runes and rituals
113
Comparing the corpora
115
The Frisian corpus
118
Frisian and AngloSaxon runic peculiarities
121
Runes in Denmark and Southeast Europe
126
Continental runewriting
127
Runes on bracteates
129
Checklist Period I legible and partly interpretable inscriptions
153
Recent finds
168
Illegible andor uninterpretable inscriptions
169
Gothic runic finds
171
Period II the Blekinge inscriptions
176
Summary and conclusions
183
A new explanation of the Blekinge texts
188
CHAPTER Six BRACTEATES WITH RUNES 1 Introduction
190
Alu
194
Auja
196
Fubark
197
Labu
199
Checklist runic bracteates
201
Conclusions
222
CHAPTER SEVEN CONTINENTAL RUNIC INSCRIPTIONS 1 Introduction
223
Checklist legible and partly interpretable inscriptions
226
Recent finds
264
Illegible andor uninterpretable inscriptions
266
The Weser inscriptions
267
No runes
268
The shift ai ae the interchange of u and w and of b and w
269
CHAPTER EIGHT EARLY RUNIC INSCRIPTIONS IN ENGLAND 1 Introduction
273
Checklist Period I legible and partly interpretable inscriptions
276
Illegible or uninterpretable inscriptions and singlerune inscriptions
289
Recent finds
292
Possibly runic nonrunic and ornamental signs
294
Summary and conclusions
295
CHAPTER NINE RUNIC INSCRIPTIONS IN OR FROM
299
APPENDIX SWEDISH AND NORWEGIAN INSCRIPTIONS
329
Norway
338
BIBLIOGRAPHY
361
INDEX
379
Copyright

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About the author (2003)

Tineke J.H. Looijenga, Ph.D. (1997) in Historical Linguistics, is Senior Consultant at the University of Groningen. She has published extensively on runes and runic inscriptions.

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