The State of Working America, 1996-97 (Google eBook)

Front Cover
M.E. Sharpe
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Contents

Declining Job Stability
249
Displacement
253
LongTerm Growth in PartTime Work
257
More Than One Job
261
The Contingent Workforce
265
SelfEmployment
271
WEALTH More for the Wealthy Financial Decline and Insecurity for the Majority
275
Financial Assets BoomedTangibles Failed to Grow
276

The Impact of Demographic Changes on Income
72
The Shrinking Middle Class?
76
Increased Work by Wives Cushions Income Fall in 1980s Less So in 1990s
79
Falling Behind the Earlier Generations
94
Income Mobility
97
TAXES A Further Cause of Rising Inequality
101
Still Light Overall
102
Despite Progressive Changes an Increase in Regressivity
104
The Diminished Progressivity of Federal Tax Rates
109
What Federal Tax Changes Mean in Dollars
114
The Causes of Changes in the Federal Tax Burden
115
The Shift to Untaxed Profits
121
The Shift to State and Local Taxes
125
Working Longer for Less
131
More Hours and Stagnant Wages
133
Contrasting Compensation and Wage Growth
135
LowPaid Occupations Fared Worse
139
Wage Trends by Wage Level
143
The MaleFemale Wage Gap
147
The Expansion of LowWage Jobs
149
Benefit Reduction
156
Dimensions of Inequality
161
What Explains Wage Trends?
166
Rising Education Wage Differentials
168
Young Workers Have Been Hurt Most
175
Decomposing the Growth in Wage Inequality
178
School Quality and Tests
182
The Shift to LowPaying Industries
184
Trade and Wages
190
The Union Dimension
198
An Eroded Minimum Wage
204
Summarizing the Role of LaborMarket Institutions
212
Technologys Impact
214
Executive Pay Soars
226
Race Academic Achievement and Wages
229
What Does the Future Hold?
233
JOBS Growing Employment Instability
241
Unemployment and Underemployment
242
Unemployment and the Earnings Distribution
245
Job Growth Slows Since the 1970s
246
Wealth Inequality Exceeds Income Gap
278
Growing Wealth Inequality
281
Who Gains from the Stock Market Boom?
287
Soaring Debt
293
POVERTY High Rates Persist Despite Overall Growth
295
The Failure of Economic Growth
296
Measuring the Extent of Poverty
298
Alternative Measurements of Poverty
299
The Poor Get Poorer
304
The Length of Time Spent in Poverty
308
The Poverty Status of Different Demographic Groups
312
Family Structure and Poverty
316
Quantifying the Role of Demographics
319
The Poverty of FemaleHeaded Families
322
The Changing Effects of Taxes and Transfers
328
Is There a Welfare Trap?
331
Explaining the High Poverty Rates of the 1980s
336
REGIONAL ANALYSIS Uneven Job Growth Consistent Wage Losses
347
Median Family Income Declines in Most States
348
Rising Inequality in Income and Earnings
352
Job Growth but Falling Median Wages
357
Poverty Rates Vary Greatly by Region and Area
370
INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS The United States Is Falling Behind in Productivity and Wage Growth
381
Sluggish Growth in the United States
382
US Growth Flat or Negative
385
Income Inequality
393
Wage Inequality
396
Poverty
401
Comparing Economic Mobility Among Countries
406
Job Growth and the Public Commitment to Job Training and Unemployment Compensation
409
The Family Income Data Series
417
Wage Analysis Computations
423
The Measurement of Inflation
427
TABLE NOTES
431
FIGURE NOTES
451
BIBLIOGRAPHY
455
EPI Publications
463
About EPI
466
About the Authors
467
Copyright

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Page 39 - We often categorize families by the age or the race /ethnic group of the "household head," that is, the person in whose name the home is owned or rented. If the home is owned jointly by a married couple, either spouse may be designated the household head. Every family has a single household head.
Page 47 - Table 1.3 shows that the income declines have been greatest among the youngest families. The average income of families headed by someone under age 25 declined at an annual rate of 2.4% from 1979 to 1989 and 1.8% from 1989 to 1995. These young families in 1994 had $6,148 less income to spend in real dollars than their 1967 counterparts had when they were starting out. This pattern of income loss has meant that the income gap between the median income of these youngest families and those of older...

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