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angle applied forces Article Barlow beam be fixed breadth breaking weight cast iron centre of gravity coefficient of elasticity column common theory constant crushing cubic foot curve cylindrical depth determined diameter distance elastic limits elongation ends and loaded equal equation experiments factor of safety Fairbairn fibres flexure formula free end given gives hence Hodgkinson horizontal Hot Blast increased inertia law of resistance longitudinal material maximum deflection metal middle millimetre modulus moments multiplied nearly neutral axis origin of coordinates parabola piece pounds preceding rail rectangular beam rivets rupture shearing strain shearing stress side solid specimens square inch steel strength Strength of Materials subjected sustain Take the origin temperature tenacity tensile Tensile Strength tension thickness tion tons torsion transverse section transverse shearing triangle tubes uniform uniformly loaded vertical wedge whole length wrought iron
Page 113 - The portions be and e ( resemble simple beams and their upper edges are in compression while the lower are in tension. If the ends of the girders are not fixed, but are simply supported, the curves will be as shown in Fig. 34. The curves of each span produced by a uniform load resemble those of a beam fixed at one end and supported at the other. The location of the points of contraflexure and the value of the bending moments are affected by the distribution of the load and the section of the girder....
Page 208 - From these experiments on tension at widely different temperatures we have thus found : — 1. That the absolute strength of iron and steel is not diminished by cold, but that even at the lowest temperature which ever occurs in Sweden, it is at least as great as at the ordinary temperature (about 60° Fahr.).
Page 2 - Stresses are the forces which are applied to bodies to bring into action their elastic and cohesive properties. These forces cause alterations of the forms of the bodies upon which they act. Strain is a name given to the kind of alteration produced by the stresses. The distinction between stress and strain is not always observed, one being used for the other. (Wood.) Stresses are of different kinds, viz.
Page 33 - The result shewed that the length-strip was 7jV per cent, stronger than the one cut crosswise, considering the tenacity of the latter equal to 100. Of the other sets, embracing about 40 strips cut in each direction, it appears that some kinds of boiler iron manifest much greater inequality in the two directions than others. It is in certain cases not much over one per cent., and in others exceeds twenty, and as a mean of the whole series it may be stated to amount to six per cent, of the strength...
Page 238 - ... It was naturally supposed that poisoning the timber would poison or drive away the teredo, but Kyan's, and all other processes employing solutions of the salts of metals of alkaline earths, signally failed. This, however, is not surprising. The constant motion of sea-water soon dilutes and washes away the small quantity of soluble poison with which the wood has been injected. If any albuminate of a metallic base still remains in the wood, the poisonous properties of the injection have been destroyed...
Page 140 - The modulus of rupture for transverse stress is the stre'ss at the instant of rupture upon a unit of the section which is most remote from the neutral axis on the side which first ruptures.
Page 34 - ... differing by only 60 Ibs. to the square inch. This seems to prove that by both methods of preparing the specimens the accidental weakening effect of slitting had been removed by separating all that portion of the metal on which it had been exerted. Hence we may infer that the differences...
Page 212 - ... invariably break after a certain length of service. They have a " life " which is limited. Several years ago Fairbairn wrote : ' ' We know that In some cases wrought iron subjected to continuous vibration assumes a crystalline structure, and that the cohesive powers are much deteriorated, but we are ignorant of the causes of this change." We are still ignorant, not only of the causes of this change, but of the conditions under which it takes place.
Page 209 - ... employed for rails in the three principal rail-making countries (Wales, France, and Belgium), the breaking strain, as tested by sudden blows or shocks, is considerably influenced by cold; such iron exhibiting at 10° Fahr. only from one-third to one-fourth of the strength which it possesses at 84° Fahr.
Page 223 - In regard to the margin that should be left for safety, much depends upon the character of the loading. If the load is simply a dead weight, the margin may be comparatively small; but if the structure is to be subjected to percussive forces or shocks, it is evident that the margin should be comparatively large, on account of the indeterminate effect, produced by the force.