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This is extraordinary, supernatural in the the sense of a grace delivered to unexpected recipiients. I wish, hope that I could be in that group.
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One of the greatest publications in all of human literature, nearly unprecedented in rival, in which can be found the buried treasure, as unearthed by Gilbert Lewis in 1923, that the inequality: ΔG < 0, or what has come to be called the Lewis inequality for natural processes, governs human existence, interpersonal reactions, past, present, and future.
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actual component body cell coexistent phases component substances composition condition of stability conditions of equilibrium considered constant values critical phase curvature denote determined developable surface diagram differential coefficients diminished dissipated energy dividing surface electrode electrolytic electromotive force element energy and entropy entropy equal equations of condition evidently experiments expressed film finite fluid mass formula function fundamental equation gases given mass gravity heat Hence hold true homogeneous masses ideal gas ideal gas-mixture increase independently variable components infinitesimal isentropics isometrics isopiestics limit liquid matter mechanical equilibrium mixture negative nitrogen observed obtain positive possible primitive surface principal curvatures Professor Gibbs properties quantities regard relations relative densities represented respect satisfied side solid superficial tension suppose surface of discontinuity surface of dissipated surface of tension tangent plane temperature and pressure thermodynamic unstable vanish vapor variations varied volume zero
Page xxi - ... of perfectly transparent media, the theory not only accounts for the dispersion of colors (including the "dispersion of the optic axes" in doubly refracting media), but also leads to Fresnel's laws of double refraction for any particular wave-length without neglect of the small quantities which determine the dispersion of colors. He proceeds in the second paper to show that circular and elliptical polarization are explained by taking into account quantities of a still higher order, and that these...
Page 437 - Again, the consideration of the electrical potential in the electrolyte, and especially the consideration of the difference of potential in electrolyte and electrode, involves the consideration of quantities of which we have no apparent means of physical measurement, while the difference of potential in "pieces of metal of the same kind attached to the electrodes " is exactly one of the things which we can and do measure.
Page 362 - For the equilibrium of any isolated system it is necessary and sufficient that in all possible variations of the state of the system which do not alter its energy, the variation of its entropy shall either vanish or be negative.
Page 93 - If to any homogeneous mass in a state of hydrostatic stress we suppose an infinitesimal quantity of any substance to be added, the mass remaining homogeneous and its entropy and volume remaining unchanged, the increase of the energy of the mass divided by the quantity of the substance added is the potential for that substance in the mass considered.
Page 96 - A system of r coexistent phases, each of which has the same n independently variable components is capable of n + 2— r variations of phase. For the temperature, the pressure, and the potentials for the actual components have the same values in the different phases, and the variations of these quantities are by (97) subject to as many conditions as there are different phases.
Page 260 - ... the addition of a little salt. The analytical conditions which determine the stability or instability of the system are easily found, when the temperature and potentials of the system are regarded as known, as well as the fundamental equations for the interior mass and the surface of discontinuity. The study of surfaces of discontinuity throws considerable light upon the subject of the stability of such phases of fluids as have a less pressure than other phases of the same components with the...
Page 372 - The second part of the paper* commences with a discussion of the conditions of internal and external equilibrium for solids in contact with fluids with regard to all possible states of strain of the solids.
Page xxv - Outside of his scientific activities, Professor Gibbs's life was uneventful ; he made but one visit to Europe, and with the exception of those three years, and of summer vacations in the mountains, his whole life was spent in New Haven, and all but his earlier years in the same house, which his father had built only a few rods from the school where he prepared for college and from the university in the service of which his life was spent.
Page 369 - The stability of any phase with respect to continuous changes depends upon the same conditions with respect to the second and higher differential coefficients of the density of energy regarded as a function of the density of entropy and the densities of the several components, which would make the density of energy a minimum, if the necessary conditions with respect to the first differential coefficients were fulfilled.
Page 115 - Any other kind of fundamental equation for a substance of invariable composition will suggest an analogous geometrical method. Thus, if we make m constant, the variables in any one of the sets (99)-(103) are reduced to three, which may be represented by rectangular co-ordinates. This will, however, afford but four different methods, for, as has already (page...
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