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The total sales of timber, excluding sandal, aggregated 85,444 cubic feet and realised Rs. 80,596. Of sandalwood 246 tons of rough wood was collected, there being on hand 90 tons of clean wood and 90 tons of rough. Altogether 250 tons of rough wood were converted, yielding 236 tons of clean wood. To hundred and nineteen tons of clean wood were disposed ot for Rs. 1,02,733, or an average of Rs. 469, the highest value yet realised. The cost of collection and preparation amounted to Rs. 20-15-0 per ton.
The gross revenue realised was Rs. 2,24,575 as against Rs. 1,86,215 of the previous year, the expenditure being Rs. 88,273 as compared with Rs. 94,099 and surplus Rs. 1.36.302 as compared with Rs. 92,116. The whole of this increase was derived from sales of departmentally felled timber and from sandalwood. About Rs. 41,700 was derived from rosewood and ebony, which were sold for as much as Rs. 2 and Rs. 4 per cubic foot respectively. As regards sandalwood, there was an increase of over Rs. 18,000 owing to a greater demand.
An attempt was made at the collection and preparation of gum kino (Pterocarpus marsupiuni). Three hundred and thirtyfive trees were tapped and 77 lbs. of dried kino were obtained and sent for analysis to the Reporter on Economic Products, Calcutta, the report on the analysis proving a favourable one.
Five new elephants were captured in pits. Of these three were serviceable animals (one tusker subsequently died of anthrax), the remaining two being calves.
Ix The Forkst Quarterly for August (No. 3 of 1905)
there are two able papers by Henry S. Graves on Volume Tables and Methods of Scaling Logs. B. E. Femow, the Editor-in-Chief, reviews the two works on Forest Terminology which have recently appeared. The one is the well-known French-German Dictionary by Professor J. Gerschell, of which the 4th edition has already been noticed in these pages. The second is the Bulletin of " Terms used in Forestry and Logging " issued by the American Bureau of Forestry. As Mr. Fernow says, the first-named publication covers a wider field and has a different aim from the latter, namely, to record for dictionary use the terms employed in the three languages in Forestry and allied subjects ; while the American publication* is a statement of the terminology which the Bureau of Forestry "will closely follow in all its work." It is therefore less inclusive but to the Americans of more direct interest. We are of opinion that it would be of great advantage were the compilation of an English Dictionary of Forestry terms taken in hand. At present we suffer from having a plethora of words meaning the same thing, often curious derivations from the French or German. It would probably be of advantage to come to some definite understanding with all English-speaking Foresters upon this subject. E. A. Sterling contributes a short paper on Forest Legislation in California.
The monthly Au.GEMEINE FoRST-u JAGDZEITUNG publishes as a supplement the Jahresbericht iiber Veroffentlichungen und wichtigereEreignis.se im Gehiete des Forstevesens, der Forsstlichen zoologie, der Agrikulturchemie, der Meteorologie und der forstlichen Botanik fiirdasjhar, 1904.+ This is a most useful annual survey of forest literature. Taking in the whole world, it discusses all magazine literature of permanent interest and also records all book literature. Each chapter, of which there are nine, is prepared by an expert in the particular subject dealt with. No index is appended, but a summary index comprising the last ten yeas is under preparation.
In the Records Of The Geological Survey Of India is
a paper by Mr. J Malcolm Maclaren on .the Geology of Upper Assam. It is pointed out that the region is a great plain situated 320 to 500 feet above sea-level, and bounded on the north-west by the Eastern Himalaya and on the south-east by the Patkai ranges, while the head of the valley is closed in by the crystalline
* Bulletin No 61, pp. 53, 8n10., U. S. Department o! Agriculture, Bureau of Forest ry.
t Dr. Karl Wimmenauer Frankfort, 1905, Mk. 3, 60,
and metamorphic rocks of the Miju ranges. On the Patkai and Himalaya ranges upper tertiary sandstones occur at a considerable height, up to 6,000 feet indeed, hut they have not been observed anywhere on the heights of Miju. Attention is drawn to the general uplifting and reversed faulting of the tertiary rocks on either side of the great plain, and to the deflection in the trend of the Patkai range where it abuts against that of Miju. These features are attributed to earth stresses during the formation of the mountains. Mr. Maclaren concludes that the Patkai and Himalaya, in their later growth at least, are of contemporaneous development, and that both are orographically and geologically distinct from the great meridional mountainsystem of Upper Burma, Tibet, and Western China.
In the Revuk Des Eaux Et Forets for October an account is given of the meeting of the first Congress held having for its object the protection and reafforesting of the mountainous tracts. The Congress met at BorJeaux on the 28th and 29th of July under the presidency of the Minister of Agriculture, the Minister of Public Works being also represented, as were also the French Alpine Club, the Touring Club, the Geographical Societies of Paris and Bordeaux, the Society of Physical and Natural Science, the National Society for the Encouragement of Agriculture and other Agricultural Societies. The object of the Congress was to draw attention to the enormous importance, to agriculture in all its forms, to the maintenance of the water-supply for the requirements of the people, to the upkeep of roads and other communications, of reafforesting or keeping under forest the mountainous tracts in France. A number of resolutions upon this important subject were adopted.
Bulletin No. 53 of the Department of Agriculture, Madras, Heals with the cultivation and curing of tobacco as followed near Dindigul, Madura District. In this Bulletin Mr. Benson, Deputy Director of Agriculture, considers the class of soil chosen for tobacco cultivation, and the method of preparing it, goats and sheep being penned upon it at night for a month or six weeks after the land has been ploughed up seven or eight times. The manure thus obtained is exposed to the sun and rain and then ploughed in. The seed is then put in beds, the beds being merely parts of the field with little banks raised round the sides to retain the water. These are made near the well, the beds being flooded tT a depth of halt an inch or more. This cakes the surface, and but a limited number of the seeds germinate. The latter takes place in seven or ei»ht days. About six or seven weeks after germination the seedlings begin to show their leaves, and when these latter are 3—4 inches long the seedlings are transplanted. The land before the transplants are put in is ploughed up and the channels flooded. The plants have to be kept weeded and watered, and some hoeing is done. The plants are topped when they are 2%—3 feet high and a few days before the bud appears. They have then been about two months in the field and carry from 9—12 leaves. The plants ripen in 90—100 days, and when a few spots have appeared on the lower leaves the plants are cut off close to the ground at about 5 p.m. They are then allowed to remain exposed to the night dew and at daybreak are gathered up and bulked into small circular heaps two feet high, the stalks outwards. These heaps are covered with straw, and are not opened till the third evening after the harvest. The plants are then left on the ground for a short time, being subsequently hung up on horizontal poles with the stalks pressed close to one another. The leaves are cured in 15—20 days from the time of hanging up.
When the stems of the leaves have become thoroughly dry, although the stalks may still be green, the plants are taken down and bulked into square heaps two feet or more in height, the stalks being laid crosswise over one another. These bulks are opened and rebulked every two or three days. When a blackish colour appears on the leaf, the fermentation is finished, and the leaves are stripped off the stalk and tied up into bundles of 50 leaves, w eighing 1 i2 to 2 lbs. each, and baled. In many cases a mixture of jaggery and water is sprinkled on the leaves after the fermentation is over. The produce of one acre of tobacco cultivated in this manner ranges from 800 to 1,000 lbs.
SHIKAR, TRAVEL, AND NATURAL HISTORY
THE NILGIRI GAME AND FISH PRESERVATION
The Report of the Nilgiri Game and Fish Association for the year closing 30th June 1905 contains much of interest to that ever-increasing class of sportsmen who have come to the conclusion that the time has arrived when, both in the interests of sport itself and in those of the game whose existence depends upon it, it behoves all true sportsmen to bestir themselves with the object of obtaining true and effectual game preservation laws, coupled with proper close seasons for each class of game and sanctuaries of efficient size.
The introduction of the necessary legislative measures rests with the Government or, we should say, Governments of the country, since the protection of the game in the numerous Native States is equally important and is in most cases entirely in the hands of their rulers. On the other hand, the determination of the correct close seasons for the various classes of game and the formation of sanctuaries depends to a great extent upon the sportsmen of the country; and their voices on these matters should carry considerable weight, for on their observations alone can correct opinions be formed.
It is obviously absurd to, e.g., have one close season of the same periods and duration for the deer family all over the country, since the climatic conditions are so different in different parts of this great continent. Equally absurd is it to prescribe, as has been done often, one and the same close season for, we will say, the sambhar and spotted deer of any particular locality. Many sportsmen must be well aware that in the middle of the shooting season in the north of India the spotted stags are often in velvet; in other words, from a sportsman's point of view they are closed to shooting, whatever the rules on the subject may prescribe. It