Physical Optics (Google eBook)

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Macmillan, 1911 - Physical optics - 705 pages
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Page 166 - Some of the leading features were described as follows : (1) If one of the crystalline plates be turned round in its own plane, without alteration of the angle of incidence, the peculiar reflection vanishes twice in a revolution, viz., when the plane of incidence coincides with the plane of symmetry of the crystal. (2) As the angle of incidence is increased, the reflected light becomes brighter, and rises in refrangibility. (3) The colours are not due to absorption, the transmitted light being...
Page 622 - The intensity of the light scattered by a small particle is constant, and a maximum, for rays which lie in the vertical plane running east and west, while there is no scattered ray along the north and south line. If the primary ray is unpolarized, the light scattered north and south is entirely due to that component which vibrates east and west, and is therefore perfectly polarized, the direction of its vibration being also east and west. Similarly any other ray scattered horizontally is perfectly...
Page 95 - ... black. It will be readily understood, that with the long path between the lens and the image a very slight change in the optical density of any portion of the medium in front of the lens will be sufficient to raise or depress the image above or below the edge of the diaphragm, and will consequently make itself manifest in the telescope. The importance of using a lens of first-class quality is quite apparent, since variations in the density of the glass of the lens will act in the same way as...
Page 98 - ... and it should be slowly lowered (one end resting on the bottom of the dish) until the rectangular piece detaches itself and floats freely on the surface. The edges of the tank are well greased, and then lowered carefully upon the film, to which they will adhere. The whole must then be lifted from the water in an oblique direction, when the film will be found covering the tank and exhibiting the most beautiful interference colors.
Page 621 - According to our hypothesis, the foreign matter may be supposed to load the ether, so as to increase its inertia without altering its resistance to distortion. If the particles were away, the wave would pass on unbroken and no light would be emitted laterally. Even with the particles retarding the motion of the ether, the same will be true if, to counterbalance the increased inertia, suitable forces are caused to act on the ether at all points where the inertia is altered. These forces have the same...
Page 55 - ... reflected wave-front. By drawing the orthogonal surface we avoid the complication of having to measure off the distances around a corner. The orthogonal surface is an epicycloid formed by the rolling of a circle of a diameter equal to the radius of curvature of the mirror on the mirror's surface, and normals can be erected by drawing the...
Page 173 - Though 1 know of no direct way of proving that, in this case, the light reflected from the collodion surface is an essential factor, there is strong indirect evidence. If the film is wedge-shaped and sodium light is employed, the dark fringes seen at normal incidence move towards the thick edge of the wedge as the angle of incidence is increased, exactly as they do with thin films of the ordinary type. If the incident light is polarized perpendicularly to the plane of incidence, the fringes gradually...
Page 166 - ... (3) The colours are not due to absorption, the transmitted light being strictly complementary to the reflected. (4) The coloured light is not polarised. It is produced indifferently, whether the incident light be common light or light polarised in any plane, and is seen whether the reflected light be viewed directly or through a Nicol's prism turned in any way. [Shown.] (5) The spectrum of the reflected light is frequently found to consist almost entirely of a comparatively narrow band. When...
Page 254 - In fig. 2 we have a diagram illustrating this condition. This plate when held before the eye showed a ring of wide aperture surrounding a brilliant source of light, with four distinct concentrations, two very bright and two quite faint. The appearance reminded one most forcibly of a solar halo with parhelia or mock suns. A photograph of this curious diffraction pattern was made by directing a camera towards a brilliant point source of light, and placing one of the frilled plates before the lens....
Page 367 - ... as much as 94 per cent., of the light that could be reflected by a greater number, whereas 4 plates of the perfectly transparent kind reflect only 60 per cent. The Table shows that while the amount of light transmitted at the polarizing angle by a pile of a considerable number of plates is materially reduced by a defect of transparency, its state of polarization is somewhat improved. This result might be seen without calculation. For while no part of the transmitted light which is polarized perpendicularly...

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