ICL: a business and technical history
The history of ICL is synonymous with the history of the British computer industry. ICL was formed by a series of mergers in response to the increasing market dominance of the large American corporations, particularly IBM. The struggles between these two giants and the inherent problems and implications of competing with US multi-nationals are examined in detail in Campbell Kelly's wide ranging study. At the time of writing in the late 1980s, the author was given unrestricted access to ICL archives and his lucid account of the company, its set-backs and successes makes for a compelling and informative read. This book, which was Winner of the Wadsworth Prize for Business History (1989), will be of great interest to anyone involved in business or the computing industry.
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Hollerith and the origins 18801907
The British Tabulating Machine Company
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Acc and Tab agreement American company announced Basil de Ferranti Bletchley Park Board Minutes Board Papers Britain British company BTM Board BTM's Burroughs Campbell-Kelly cards census cent chairman Charles Babbage Institute competitive cost customers data-processing early electronics engineering English Electric English Electric Computers equipment European Everard Greene exports fact factory Ferranti Fujitsu Hollerith Honeywell IBM's ICL Archives ICL Board ICL Historical Collection ICL's ICT's Impey important installations integrated circuits interview key punch launch Leo Computers London mainframe major managing director manufacturers Maxwell ment merger million October office machinery office-machine overseas patents period peripherals Phillpotts planning Plessey Powers Accounting Machines Powers-Samas problems processors production profits range Remington Rand rental Report revenues royalty Samastronic selling September sorter strategy System/3 Table Tabulating Machine Company technical United Univac users Vickers