Multidimensional Geographic Information Science

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CRC Press, Nov 23, 2000 - Technology & Engineering - 332 pages
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The way people normally view a GIS is 2-dimensional, a greatly limiting form. However, as developments occur within the field, researchers and practitioners are finding ways to make a GIS 3-dimensional, and in some instances even 4-dimensional. Being able to view a GIS in more than 2 dimensions greatly enhances its usability.
This forward-looking text, looks at the ways in which 3- and 4-dimensional (multidimensional) GIS can be incorporated into the area in the future using a variety of programming techniques. The author of this unique book also discusses current examples and uses of multidimensional GIS in the field and shows the way forward for users in the coming years.
  

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Contents

The worldview of geographic information science
3
Discipline
4
THEORETICAL COMMITMENTS OF THE GISC WORLDVIEW
5
Metaphysics
6
Ontology
9
Epistemology
10
Philosophy of mind
17
Linguistics
19
Twodimensional data modelling
133
Threedimensional data modelling
136
Georepresentation of processes
138
Approaches to process modelling
139
Spatiotemporal data modelling
140
TWODIMENSIONAL GEOREPRESENTATION
141
THREEDIMENSIONAL GEOREPRESENTATION
145
Solid geometric modelling
146

Cognitive science
22
Informatics
24
THE POSSIBILITY OF GISC
28
Twodimensional representations of space
31
Metaphysics of space and place
32
Metaphors for geographical thinking
33
Metaphysics of geographical and spatial representation
34
Social conceptions of geographic space
35
Naive geography
36
Psychology of realism
38
Space and spaces
39
Metaphysical implications
40
ONTOLOGY OF SPACE
41
How do we characterise geographic kinds?
42
How certain are we of the identity of geographical kinds?
43
Cognitive maps
44
Scale and space
45
Spatial knowledge knowledge representation and spatial reasoning
47
Space in language
51
Space in representational art
53
Social constitution of spatial concepts
54
Absolute and relative views of space
57
Ontological implications
58
The evolution of epistemological theories of space
59
Epistemological commitments of contemporary research on space
62
THE ORIGINS OF TWODIMENSIONAL SPATIAL REPRESENTATION
63
History of cartographic representation
67
MAPS AS REPRESENTATIONS OF SPACE
71
Maps and communication about space in the narrow sense
72
Mapping as representation in the broad sense
76
THE DEVELOPMENT OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS
77
Surveying conventions
78
Cartographic conventions
80
The critique of GIS from social theory
81
THE CURRENT AND FUTURE SCOPE OF GIS AND GISc
82
Multidimensional representations of space and time
85
Thinking on space and time between the Renaissance and the 20th century
90
Research on space and time in the 20th century
98
Philosophy of space and time
102
Mathematics space and time
106
The psychology of space and time
108
Anthropological concepts of space and time
110
Social construction of space and time
111
CONCEPTS OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL GEOREPRESENTATION
115
A framework for multidimensional concepts in the mesoscopic domain
116
Cognitive science
117
Social theory
118
Multidimensional georepresentations for modelling
121
Spatial and temporal structures
124
Space and time connection hybrid
125
Space and time connection integrated
126
Model absolute
127
Models of time
129
Scale and space
130
THEORY AND PRACTICE OF GEOREPRESENTATION
131
Georepresentation of forms structures and properties
132
Threedimensional data structures for georepresentation
150
Parametric approaches
151
Voxel approaches
155
Hybrid approaches
156
Databases for georepresentations
157
Threedimensional spatial query and analysis
158
MULTIDIMENSIONAL GEOREPRESENTATION
160
SPATIOTEMPORAL KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION
162
Temporal GIS
163
Objectoriented spatiotemporal GIS
165
Time geography
167
Fourdimensional GIS
168
Multidimensional process modelling
170
THE POTENTIAL FOR MULTIDIMENSIONAL GEOREPRESENTATION
171
Multidimensional georepresentations for exploration
173
Multimedia data types as georepresentations
175
Virtual environments as georepresentations
178
Database storage of multimedia and virtual georepresentations
182
Multimedia development and standards
184
Hypermedia development environments
185
SPATIAL MULTIMEDIA AND VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS
188
Multimediahypermedia GIS
189
Web GIS
190
Virtual reality GIS
191
Realtime GIS
192
Geolibraries
194
MULTIDIMENSIONAL EXPLORATION OF GEOREPRESENTATIONS
196
Visualisation data mining and animation of georepresentations
199
CONCLUSIONS
201
INTRODUCTION
203
The geography of the North Norfolk Coast
204
Hypermedia georepresentations for coastal management
207
EXPERIMENTS IN HYPERMEDIA GEOREPRESENTATION
208
Hypermedia functions in GIS
210
Panoramap hypermedia environment
211
POTENTIAL
212
Georepresentation of dynamic coastal geophenomena CONTEXT
213
Videometric measurement of processes
214
Animating multidimensional landform behaviour
215
Human spatiotemporal behaviour
216
POTENTIAL
217
Georepresentations of coastal change using virtual environments
219
Interfaces to virtual georepresentations
220
Timedependent display of virtual worlds
223
Threedimensional modelling of coastal landforms
225
EXPERIMENTS IN THREEDIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF COASTAL LANDFORMS
226
Minimum tension isosurface modelling
228
Tetrahedronbased modelling
230
POTENTIAL
231
Multidimensional georepresentation in coastal environments
233
MULTIDIMENSIONAL COASTAL GEOREPRESENTATION EXPERIMENTS
234
Multidimensional exploration of coastal change
236
POTENTIAL
237
References
239
Index
287
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