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THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS I
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adiabatic atoms bath at temperature Boltzmann calculate capacity at constant Chapter chemical potential classical gas consider constant pressure constant volume corresponding crystal curve defined definition degrees of freedom density depends derive dipoles discussion Einstein enclosure energy levels entropy entropy change equation equipartition theorem example expression extensive quantity factor fermions ﬂow ﬂuctuations ﬂuid follows from Eq frequency gases Gibbs free energy given by Eq heat bath helium Helmholtz free energy Hence independent integral interaction isolated system isothermal kinetic energy lattice liquid low temperatures macroscopic system magnetic field microstates molecules momentum motion number of particles obtain occur paramagnetic particle numbers partition function perfect classical gas perfect gas phase space photon piston problem properties quantities quantum reaction result reversible rotational Schottky defects section 2.3 shown in Fig single-particle solenoid solid spin statistical weight theory thermal equilibrium thermodynamic vapour pressure variables velocity vibrational wave zero