Snow and Glacier Hydrology, Volume 792367677 (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 28, 2001 - Science - 742 pages
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This text provides a discussion of some aspects of snow and glacier hydrology, drawing on the results of investigations in Arctic, Antarctic, Himalayas, Alps, Rocky Mountains and other mountains of the world. The book should prove useful as a source of reference at the senior undergraduate or beginning graduate level and should stimulate further interest and research in this important part of the hydrologic cycle. It should be useful to those who are engaged in the practice of agricultural and civil engineering, earth sciences, environmental sciences and engineering, ecosystem management, forest and watershed sciences, and others. The subject matter of this book is divided into five parts, containing 14 chapters. Part I is concerned with preliminaries, including the scope and importance of snow and glaciers, general characteristics of the atmosphere, precipitation mechanisms, formation and growth of crystals, classification of snow crystals, and chemistry of snow.
  

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Contents

PRELIMINARIES
1
13 HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
3
14 INVENTORY OF THE WORLDS WATER AND GLOBAL WATER BALANCE
5
15 ROLE OF HYDROLOGY
19
16 SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE OF SNOW AND GLACIERS
20
17 A SHORT HISTORY OF SNOW AND GLACIER STUDIES
38
REFERENCES
45
PROPERTIES AND MEASUREMENT OF SNOW AND SNOW COVER
53
88 SIMULATION ACCURACY
404
REFERENCES
407
SNOWMELT MODELS
415
92 SNOWMELT RUNOFF MODEL SRM
421
93 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WATERSHED MODEL UBC
427
94 PRECIPITATIONRUNOFF MODELING SYSTEM PRMS
437
95 HBV MODEL
443
REFERENCES
445

22 ATMOSPHER1C WATER VAPOR AND ITS INDICES
56
23 VAPORIZATION OR EVAPORATION
61
25 HEAT REQUIRED FOR CONVERSION
62
27 PRECIPITATION
72
28 FORMATION AND GROWTH OF SNOW CRYSTALS
82
29 CLASSIFICATION OF SNOW CRYSTALS
87
210 CHEMISTRY OF SNOW
88
211 TYPICAL WINDS IN MOUNTAINS
94
REFERENCES
96
PROPERTIES OF SNOW AND ICE
104
32 THERMAL PROPERTIES
112
33 OPTICAL PROPERTIES
117
REFERENCES
119
MEASUREMENT OF SNOW
121
43 COMPARISON OF SNOW GAUGE MEASUREMENTS
130
44 ERRORS IN PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENTS
132
45 SHIELDING OF SNOW GAUGES
144
46 NETWORK AND OBSERVATION FREQUENCY
149
47 TELEMETRY OF SNOW MEASUREMENTS
151
48 AREAL ESTIMATION OF PRECIPITATION
155
REFERENCES
156
MEASUREMENT OF DEPTH WATER EQUIVALENT AND AREA OF SNOW COVER
161
52 DEPTH OF SNOW COVER
162
53 SNOW COVER WATER EQUIVALENT
163
54 AREAL EXTENT OF SNOW COVER
175
55 SATELLITE SENSORS FOR SNOW RELATED STUDIES
180
56 MICROWAVE RESPONSE OF SNOW
185
57 METAMORPHISM OF SNOW
189
REFERENCES
212
SNOWMELT AND ITS ESTIMATION
220
62 SNOWMELT INDICES
254
63 COMPARISON OF ENERGY BALANCE AND INDEX APPROACH
261
64 OBSERVED MAXIMUM SNOWMELT RATES
262
REFERENCES
264
STREAMFLOW HYDROGRAPH
273
72 COMPONENTS OF STREAMFLOW
275
73 DELINEATION OF RUNOFF COMPONENTS
278
75 HYDROGRAPH TIME CHARACTERISTICS
281
76 ELEMENTS OF HYDROGRAPHS
286
77 RECESSION ANALYSIS OF SNOWMELT HYDROGRAPH
288
78 DETERMINATION OF RECESSION CONSTANTS
292
79 BASEFLOW SEPARATION
301
REFERENCES
307
SNOWMELT RUNOFF MODELING AND FORECASTING
309
82 MODELING OF SNOWMELT RUNOFF
311
83 STORAGE POTENTIAL
317
84 TIME DELAY IN RUNOFF GENERATION
320
85 SOIL CONDITIONS BENEATH A SNOW COVER
337
86 ROUTING
338
87 FORECASTING OF SNOWMELT RUNOFF
401
HYDROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GLACIERS
448
102 CLASSIFICATION OF GLACIERS
449
103 INVENTORY OF GLACIERS
453
104 SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A GLACIER
455
105 GLACIER MOVEMENT
459
106 MASS BALANCE OF A GLACIER AND ITS MEASUREMENT
474
107 DEPTH OF A GLACIER AND ITS MEASUREMENT
484
REFERENCES
489
GLACIAL MELTING
497
112 EFFECT OF DUST AND DEBRIS ON MELTING
502
113 ESTIMATION OF GLACIERMELT RUNOFF
514
114 DEGREEDAY FACTORS FOR SNOW AND ICE
521
115 FORECASTING OF GLACIERMELT RUNOFF
522
116 GLACIERMELT RUNOFF MODELS
523
117 EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GLACIERMELT RUNOFF
528
REFERENCES
529
GLACIAL STORAGE AND DRAINAGE CHARACTERISTICS
536
122 SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF GLACIER MELT RUNOFF
547
123 MELT WATER STORAGE CHARACTERISTICS
549
124 MELT WATER DRAINAGE CHARACTERISTICS
554
125 IMPACT OF PRECIPITATION ON GLACIERMELT RUNOFF
560
126 RUNOFF MOVEMENT AND DRAINAGE
561
128 ESTIMATION OF GLOF DISCHARGE
568
129 APPLICATION OF ISOTOPES IN GLACIER STUDIES
572
1210 SEPARATION OF HYDROGRAPH COMPONENTS
575
REFERENCES
579
EROSION AND SEDIMENT YIELD
588
132 EROSION AND SEDIMENT YIELD
591
133 SOURCES OF SEDIMENT IN GLACIERIZED BASINS
594
134 SEDIMENT FLUX AND SUBGLACIAL DRAINAGE NETWORK
603
135 SEDIMENTYIELD PROCESS
604
136 SEDIMENTATION FROM ARCTIC AND TEMPERATE GLACIERS
607
137 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT
608
138 GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN GLACIER MELT STREAMS
609
139 SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING
611
REFERENCES
637
STREAMFLOW MEASUREMENTS
649
141 SELECTION OF DISCHARGE OBSERVATION SITES
650
142 MEASUREMENT OF STAGE
651
143 MEASUREMENT OF VELOCITY
656
144 MEASUREMENT OF DISCHARGE
665
145 STAGEDISCHARGE RELATION
685
146 SHIFTING CONTROL
688
147 EXTENSION OF RATING CURVES
696
148 HYDRAULIC GEOMETRY
707
149 STREAMFLOW NETWORK
710
REFERENCES
712
AUTHOR INDEX
721
SUBJECT INDEX
735
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