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1997 elections 2007 elections actors African National African political African Studies agenda alliance ANC's apartheid argued authoritarian campaign challenges chapter civic civil society coalition colonial Congress constitutionalism context corruption Cosatu COTU countries critical CSOs culture Daniel arap Moi democracy democratic consolidation democratic space democratisation democratisation process donors economic electoral elite emerged ensure ethnic federation floor-crossing forces FORD funding gender groups human rights Ibid impact independence institutionalisation institutions issues Jacob Zuma Johannesburg judiciary KANU Kenya and South Kenyatta Kibaki regime labour movement leaders leadership liberalisation majority Mbeki membership mobilisation Moi regime Mugalla multiparty Nairobi NARC negotiations NGOs Odinga one-party op.cit opposition parties parliament parliamentary participation party dominance percent period political organisations political parties post-colonial president provincial relationship role SACP social South Africa struggle trade unions transition union movement unionists violence vote voters women workers Zuma