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the Society of Jesus. The course of study prescribed by Ignatius of Loyola for the members of the order is very longand comprehensive. Like the old Greek philosopher, he believed that the one who wishes to acquire true knowledge should begin by the study of himself. Two years are devoted to the study of one's self, (luring which time all other study is put aside. After these two years, if the novice or candidate wishes to remain in the oi<ler, and if the order is satisfied with the novice, the latter pronounces his perpetual vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. Then follow two years devoted to a very careful review of the classical studies already pursued in college days. Next come three years of mental philosophy, metaphysics and cosmology, also mathematics, chemistry, astronomy and physics. n rsA \ '\ After these seven years spent (A) • Yf> VaM(riSn)f in serious study tlie Jesuit is 'put to teach some of the classical branches which he has thoroughly mastered. After four or five years Jus professor in one or other of the many Jesuit colleges throughout the country, he devotes four years more to sacred scripture, theology, canon law, Hebrew and ecclesiastical history. Father Pardow went through this protracted course of study, spending the last five years in France and England. He was ordained a priest at Laval, France, Sept. 9, 1877, by the Hev. Jules Le Hardy du Mantis, bishop of Laval. On his return from Europe he was appointed professor of rhetoric, aud in 1881 was named vice-president of the College of St. Francis Xavier. He interrupted his duties as vice-president for some years of labor in Maryland, but in 1890 returned to college work as professor of mental philosophy, and, in 1891, was named president, being the first alumnus of the college to become president of his alma mater. Father Pardow was always a strong upholder of the advantages of a thorough classical education, being convinced that such a course of study gives a man the command of powers that the one who has pushed through a business college can never develop. It was while Father Pardow was vice-president, in 1N82, that the business department, or commercial course, was dropped from the college curriculum. As president, Father Pardow advocated very strongly the system of university extension, and established a night class for the advanced study of ethics and sociology. The lectures delivered by the Rev. P. Halpin, S. J.,vicepresident of the college, were, and are, very largely attended by lawyers and other professional and non-professional men. With the same desire of advancing the educational movement in the United States, both Father Pardow and Father Halpin lent all their support to the establishment of the Catholic summer school of America, Father Pardow having the honor of delivering the opening sermon in New London Aug. 6, 1892, and Father Halpin giving the lectures on ethics and sociology. Besides attending to the intellectual work of the college, Father Pardow also looked after the material improvement of the beautiful church attached to the college. To him is due the introduction of the electric light. Thirteen hundred lights, artistically arranged throughout the church, bring out the beauties of the architecture in a way not dreamed of before, aud have given rise to the universal verdict that St. Francis Xavier's church is the haudsomest in this country. Father Pardow has made many valuable additions to the college library. Libraries were pur

chased f rom Bavaria and other parts of Europe. Many of these books had been seized by sacrilegious band's when the Jesuits were expelled from the old world, and thus the society had the happiness of buying back its own books. The library contains (1893) about 25,000 volumes. The museum also is fully provided with the latest scientific instruments, and contains, besides, a complete collection of specimens for the study of paleontology, mineralogy, and geology. The collection is valued at $35,000. The herbarium consists of 25,000 specimens of American and foreign flora, and the collection of fossils and rare coins is of great value.

LINDERMAN. Henry Richard, director of the mints, was bom in Lebanon, Pa., Dec. 26, 1825. Hestudied medicine, and after completing his course, practiced his profession in Pennsylvania, finally settling in Philadelphia, where he was chief clerk of the mint in that city from 1855-64. He then resigned, and was appointed director of the mint, a position which he held for two vears. In 1871, on his return from a mission for the U. S. government to London, Paris and Berlin, he published a report on the mints in those cities. It was owing to his representations that it decided to coin the trade dollar as an outlet for the surplus silver in this country. Mr. Lindermau was also one of the framers of the coinage act of 1873. He was superintendent of the mint from April, 1873, to the time of his death. Mr. Linderman was an able advocate in favor of the gold standard. He died Jan. 27, 1879, in Washington, I). C.

DAVIS, Charles Henry, naval officer, was born in Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 28, 1845, son of Rear-Adm. Charles Henry Davis. He was graduated from the U. S. naval academy in 1864, became ensign-master in 1866, lieutenant in March, 1868, lieutenant-commander in July, 1869, and commander in 1885. His service litis been successively in the Mediterranean, the South Atlantic, the Pacific, in the naval observatory (1875-77), in submarine cable work in various waters, and from 1885 to 1888 on the training ship Saratoga. He commanded the Quinuebaug, third rate,Mediterranean station 1888-89; was chief intelligence officer of navy department, 1889-92. Appointed to command U. S. S. Montgomery on the completion of that vessel in 1893, and in May, 1893, was selected to represent the president of the United States in the reception and entertainment of the Infanta Eulalia of Spain during that princess's visit to America, as the guest of the nation. The results of his labors appear in government publications: "Chronometer Rates as Affected by Temi>erature," etc. (1877), and three volumes ou "Telegraphic Determination of Longitude" (1880 with Lieut.-Com. F. M. Green; 1883 aud 1885 with Lieut. J. A. Norris).

SLATER. Samuel, manufacturer, was born in Bel per, Derbyshire, Eng., June 9, 1768. His father was a yeoman in good circumstances, and able to give his son a thorough practical education. After serving an apprenticeship of six years at cotton spinning with Jedediah Strutt, Samuel Slater resolved to come to America and introduce the industry into the new country. Previous unsuccessful attempts had been made to build an operative spinning-jenny with the machines working raw cotton, both in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and like efforts had been made in Pennsylvania and New York, but it remained for Mr. Slater to successfully establish mills on the Ark Wright system. The work was attended with more labor and discouragement than the average young man of twenty-one years would willingly face, but Mr. Slater was above the average, a hard, courageous worker, and had a firm faith in his ultimate success. The manufacture of cotton was at this time an established industry in England, and all who were interested in the ft business were reaping such rich rewards, that every effort was made to keep the knowledge of the inventions of Hargreaves, Arkwright and Samuel Crompton confined to Great

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fBritain. An act of parliament was passed prohibiting the exportation of such machinery, and the utmost caution was taken to intercept the departure of any person who possessed knowledge of the manufacture. Admission to the factories where the new business was pursued was cautiously restricted, and the manufacturers themselves were fearful of each other and jealously guarded their own interests. Sir Richard Arkwright was a partner of Jedcdiah Strutt, to whom young Slater was apprenticed; the terms of the indenture were quaint and peculiar, and provided that the young apprentice "should be taught all the mysteries of the cotton manufacture as it was then known." The factory where he was taught was probably the best in England at that time. About the year 1789 when Mr. Slater completed his apprenticeship, the cougress of the United States passed its first act, for the promotion of manufacturing interests, and the legislature of Pennsylvania offered a premium for the introduction of the Arkwright patent into the state. Mr. Slater, becoming acquainted with these circumstances, resolved to l>e the one to have the honor of establishing this industry in America. His departure from England was attended with difficulties, and kept a secret from his own family. The first intimation given of his intentions, was in a letter to his mother, written after he had boarded the vessel that was to carry him to America. He brought with him no patterns, measurements or designs of the complicated mnchinery he had been studying during his whole apprenticeship, as the restrictions of the laws made it dangerous to leave England with such property. He first obtained employment with the New York cotton manufacturing company, at New York city, but hearing of the efforts that were being made to establish the manufacture of cotton in Rhode Island by Morris Brown, a Quaker of Providence, young Slater applied to him for the position of manager, saying it was a business in which he prided himself that he "could give the greatest satisfaction in making machinery that would manufacture as good yarn, either for stockings or twist, as any that is made in England." He received a favorable response, and early in January, 1790, Mr. Slater reached Providence, from which place he was taken to Pawtucket, where Mr. Brown had invested some money in machinery, which the young manufacturer pronounced worthless, and said that he could '' make machines that will do the work and make money at the same time." An agreement was finally made whereby he was to build a set of machines according to the Arkwright system, and receive therefor ail the profits over the interest of the capital invested; Mr. Slater to give his time and experience in the erection of the machines, which, when built, he was to operate, and receive as compensation one-half of

the profits. Nearly a year elapsed before the first frame of twenty-four spindles was built.as everything, including the tools to work with, had to be made. His greatest trouble came in making the cards. "After his frames were ready for operation, he prepared the cotton and started the cards, but the cotton rolled up on the top cards, instead of passing through the small cylinder. This was a great perplexity to him, and he was for several days in great agitation." He was at the time boarding in the house of Ozial Wilkenson, one of whose daughters be subsequently married. He did not confide his anxiety to any one, but, noting his distress, Mrs. Wilkenson said to him, "Art thou sick, Samuel?" Hethendisclosed the cause of his trouble, saying, "If I am frustrated in my carding machine, they will think me an impostor." He feared that proper cards could not be obtained outside of England, from which country they were not allowed to he exported. He finally consulted with the man who made the cards, and found the teeth were not sufficiently crooked, that the leather was inferior, and the holes, which wrere pn'cked by hand, were too large, and permitted the teeth to fall back from their proper place. The difficulties were remedied and the machinery successfully placed in operation Dec. 21, 1790. The first yarn made on his machinery equaled in quality that of the best English manufacture. The second cotton mill operated in Rhode Island was established about 1800, and in 1806 his brother John arrived from England, and together they built a cotton mill at the site of the present town of Slatersville, R. I. All of the cotton mills put in operation up to this time, were started under the direction of men who had been in' some way connected with the original factory. In 1810 there were nearly 100 factories in operation with over eighty thousand spindles, and England recognized that she had a powerful competitor in the business of cotton manufacture, which lias since made such rapid strides and developments in America. In 1812 Mr. Slater began the erection of mills in Oxford (now Webster), Mass., adding thereto in 1815-16 machinery and facilities for the manufacture of woolen cloth. He also became a large owner in several iron foundries, and extended

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his financial interests in many directions, acquiring great wealth and a reputation for business integrity, wise and noble generosity, and sound religious principles. In 1890 the town of Pawtucket, R. I., had an elaborate centennial celebration that lasted a week, the main features of which centered around the name of Samuel Slater. To him is also given the honor of having started the first Sunday-school in America. His sou, John W. Slater, has donated $1,500,000 for the endowment of schools among the freed men of the South, the people who worked to produce the cotton that his father instructed Americans to spin. Samuel Slater died at Webster, Mass., Apr. 21, 1835.

OLDS, Joseph, lawyer, wns born In Circleville, Pickaway couuty, O., Apr. 15, 1832; son of Edson Baldwin aud Anna Maria (Carolus) Olds. His father. Dr. Edson B. Olds, studied at Transylvauia college in Kentucky, aud was graduated from Jef ferson medical college in Philadelphia He was a prominent and leading democrat in Ohio, speaker of the Ohio senate in 1846—47, aud a member of con

fress for three terms from March, 1845), to March. 855, when he was defeated by the know nothing movement. While in congress he was a distin guished and influential member, and was for two terms chairman of the committee on post-offices and post-roads. The counties of Pickaway, Fairfield, Licking, Franklin, Madisou and Fayette were represented by him in congress, his district having been changed while he was a member. Dr. Olds was an able debater and eloquent s|>eaker. He was a man of unusual strength of character, and of strong convictions, which he at all times fearlessly main tained. He was born June 3, 1802, and died Jan. 25, 1869. Anna Maria Olds was born in Lancaster county. Pa., aud was a granddaughter of Peter Shaffer, who served first as ensign and afterward as captain in the Pennsylvania troops during the revolutionary war. She was noted for her kindness, charity and piety. She was born March 7, 1805; mar ried Dr. Olds at Circleville June 18. 1824. and died Dec. 22. 1859. Joseph Olds was educated by private instruction at home, until he entered the freshman class at Yale college in September, 1849. He was graduated from Yale with high honors in 1853. He then studied law for a year at Circleville with his uncle, Cuauncey N. Olds, who had been a member of I lie senate of Ohio, and was afterward attorney general of the state, and died in 1890. Chauucey N. Olds was ; a highly educated man, a cul tured and courteous gentle man. a polished aud persuasive orator, one of the foremost law yers in Ohio for many yeai's, and a prominent meniberof the Presbyterian church. He was graduated from Miami university at Oxford, O., and studied and practiced law at Circleville, with his older brother, Joseph Olds, who was a distinguished and leading lawyer in Ohio from an early day in the history of the state, until his death in 1846. Joseph Olds, the younger, in Sep tember, 1854, entered the Harvard law school in Cambridge, Mass., where he was graduated, and received the degree of LL. B in 1856. He was admitted to the bar by the district court at Chillicothe, O., the same year. In 1857 he was elected pros editing attorney of Pickaway county, and served two terms. He afterwards practiced law with Jon atliau Renick, of Circleville, until the death of Mr. Renick in 1863, and then alone until May, 1868. He had a large practice iu Pickaway and adjoining counties. In April, 1868, he was elected iu Picka way, Franklin and Madison counties a judge of the fifth judicial district of Ohio, and served as such from May, 1868, to May. 1873. During bis term of office he held all the courts of common pleas in Pickaway and Madison counties, held court in Columbus about five months iu each year, and attended all the sessions of the district court in the nine counties of the district. He resided at Circleville until May, 1878. and then changed his residence to Columbus and re-entered the practice of law in partnership with Bichard A. Harrison. He has ever since resided in

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Columbus, and practiced law with Judge Harrison, as a member of the successive firms of Harrison <fc Olds, Harrison, Olds & Marsh, and Harrison. Olds <fc Henderson. Their practice in important litigation, involving large amounts of money or property, in the federal and state courts, has been of the most extensive character. Judge Olds is devoted to his profession. He has always been a stanch and prouounced democrat, but has not, since he left the bench, desired public ortice of any kind, and has repeatedly declined to accept office. Judge Olds was married at Circleville on Dec. 18, 1866, to Mary Anderson, of Pickaway couuty. She was born at Glen Mary, near Chillicothe. O., on Nov. 5, 1846. She is the daughter of William Marshall aud Eliza (McArthur) Anderson. Her father, William Marshall Anderson, was a son of Col Bichard C. Anderson, aud a brother of Gen. Bobert Anderson, of Fort Sumter fame, of Col. Cbas. Anderson, a former governor of Ohio, and of Larz Anderson, deceased, of Cincinnati. Col. Bichard C. Anderson served throughout the revolutionary war. first as a captain, then as major and finally as lieutenant-colonel iu the Virginia continental troops. After the war, he was selected by his brother officers as the first principal surveyor of the Virginia military lands. William Marshall Anderson was born Juue 24, 1807, at his father's home, "Soldier's Betreat," near Louisville, Kv., and died at Circleville, O.. on Jan. 7, 1881. He studied at Transylvania uuivcrsity, and was admitted to the bar, but practiced law only for a few yeai's. He moved to Chillicothe, O., in 1835 aud resided there until 1854, when he changed his residence to Pickaway county. He was a man of remarkable erudition and great scientific attainments, aud of most agreeable address aud manners. While on a visit to Mexico in 1865, he was commissioned by Maximilian to examine and report upon the agricultural aud mineral resources of northern Mexico, and was engaged in that service when Maximilian fell. The mother of Mrs. Olds was born at Fruit Hill near Chillicothe on Nov. 14, 1815, aud died in Pickaway county on Sept. 2. 1855 She was a daughter of Gen. Duucan McArthur, whoserved with much distinction through the war of 1812, first as colonel of the 1st Ohio voluuteers, and afterward as colonel of the 25th U. S. infantry, and in March, 1813, was commissioned a brigadier-general in the regular army. He was serving tinder Gen. Hull at the time of " Hull's surrender," but happened to be detached on that day to bring in a supply train. As senior brigadier-general in 1814, he succeeded Gen. Harrison in the command of the northwestern army. He was afterward s|>cakerof the Ohio house of representatives, a meml>er of congress, and governor of Ohio. Soon after their marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson became converts of the Boinan Catholic church, and for the remainder of their lives were pious, devout and zealous members thereof. Two brothel's of Mrs. Olds, Thomas McA. Andei-son and Harry B. Anderson, served in the civil war. and are now officers in the regular army. Thomas M Anderson is now colonel of the 14th infantry, and Harry B. Anderson is a first lieuteuaut iu the 4th artillery. Judge Olds had two brothers, Mark L. Olds, who was older, and Edson Denny Olds, who was younger than he. Mark L. Olds left Miami university when eighteen years of age. to engage in the Mexican war. He served iu that war. first as a lieutenant in the 2d Ohio volunteers, and afterwards as a lieutenant in the 15th infantry of the regular army, which was commanded by Col. Geo. \V. Morgan, and disbanded after the war. After the Mexican war, he was admitted to the bar, and was register of the U. S. laud office at Minneapolis. He subsequently liecame an Episcopal clergyman, and died in 1869, while pastor of the "Old N'avy Yard church" in the city of

Washington. Edson Denny Olds was graduated elected a director in all the railroads in which Mr. from Jefferson medical college in Philadelphia ; acted Plant had an interest. Thirty years after entering for several years as physician for the Winnebago the service of the express company as a driver, Mr. tribe of Indians in Minnesota. He then went to O'Brien reached the goal for which he had so resoMexico, and in the spring of 1858 received a com- lutely struggled, being elected vice-president, direcmission at Monterey as surgeon in the liberal army, tor and general manager of the Southern express with the rank of colonel. He served with this army company in 1888. Although he has received many in its march and almost constant battle for a year templing offers from bank, railway, steamer and from Monterey to Morelia, and from there to the City other companies, yet nothing has yet induced him of Mexico, under the command of Gen. Degollado. to desert his chosen business or his chief. A singuIu the attack upon the City of Mexico in the spring lar fact in connection with his career is, that he has of 1869, he was struck by a cannon ball, and killed never had any differences with the officers of the in the twenty-fourth year of his age. Judge and company, and that he still retains all of his youthful Mrs. Olds have six children—four daughters and two regard for his chief, Mr. Plant. Mr. O'Brien is a sons. bachelor, and his immediate relatives are confined

O'BRIEN, M. J., vice-president and general to a brother and two sisters, one of the latter being manager of the Southern express company, was born a sister of charity. In manner he is genial, unpreln Baltimore, Md., in 1838. He began life as a clerk teutious. aud cordial, without being demonstrative, in a publishing house in Baltimore, and possesses the frankness, sincerity, loyalty, and when eight years of age, and after courtliness of his Celtic ancestors. He is a tine type ward relinquished the position to be- of physical manhood, tall, with regular features, come clerk in a drug store. The blue eyes, a firm but humorous mouth, and military express business possessed a strong bearing. He is generous with both time and purse, fascination for him as a boy, and he and a liberal contributor to worthy charities. His finally secured the position of driver winning manners, untiring energy, thorough business of an express wagon in Memphis, habits and strict integrity, have made him hosts of Tenn., at a salary of $30 a month, friends throughout the United States, and it is difflThe first day he drove a team he re cult to decide whether he is more popular as a social solved to reach the highest attain- favorite or as a business man. Firmness, frankness, able position in the company, if en thoroughness, aud perseverance are among his leadergy, integrity and determination ing characteristics, and to those may he added benevcoulddoit. At. the end of two months olence, dignity, humor, delicacy of feeling and innate he was promoted to be a shipping refinement.

clerk, at that time, 1858, one of the BROWN, Philip Shelley, lawyer, was born in most responsible positions in the ser- Bedford county, Pa., Oct. 14, 1833. His father, vice, as the railroads to New Orleans Henry Brown, was a descendant of the Maryland were not completed, and all the busi- family of that name, and his mother, whose maiden ness with that city went southward by name was Shelley, was a member of the old Shelley way of the Mississippi river. His work was so satis- and Smith families, having among her ancestors factory to the managers of the company, that H. B. some of the earliest settlers of Philadelphia. The Plaut, now the president of the Southern express father died early in 1834, and the mother, taking company, made him cashier of the New Orleans young Philip and his three brothoffice, although he had never seen him previous to ers, removed to her father's farm the appointment. He was rapidly on the way to in Huntington (now Blair) couuthe place he had determined to win When the civil ty, Pa. Here Philip alternated war broke out Mr. O'Brien enlisted in the Confeder between farm and school life ate navy, and served under Com. Poiudexter until until the age of sixteen, when he the fleet was destroyed to prevent being captured by entered the academy of Rev. John the Federal navy forces. He then went to Richmond, H. McKinney, at Hollfdaysburg, and reported to the secretary of the Confederate Pa. His stny there was prolonged navy, but instead of being sent on board a gunboat, for three years, due solely to his he was, at the request of Mr. Memminger, secretary own exertions; for during vacaof the treasury, sent to resume connection with the tion, by his services as deputy in express company, in order to be able to give special the Sheriff's office of that county, attention to the transportation of government he was enabled to meet his uecesmoneys. He accepted the mission, and performed sary expenses for tuition. Leavtbe work so thoroughly that lie received the com- ing the academy in 1852, Mr. mendatiou of his superiors as well as that of the Con- Brown during the following year federate government. He also, while engaged in entered the employ of the Camthe express business, aided in the exchange of pris bria iron companv, working oners at various places, having been appointed to through the day and continuing that place by Maj. Hatch, the assistant of Col. Ould, his studies at "night. In 1855 commissioner of exchange for Confederate prisoners, he resigned bis position and removed to Davenport, At the close of the war he was in the Atlanta office la., and taking up the study of law, was admitted of the Southern express company, and went from to the bar in 1857. In the next year he removed to there to Augusta, Ga., to act as confidential clerk for Kansas City, Mo., then a small town, and engaged in H. B. Plant, president of the company. While act- the practice of his profession, and retained for years ing in that capacity he was elected general superin a prominent position nt the bar. Largely through tendent of the Southern express company, and placed his efforts the magnificent library of the Kansas City in charge of express liues ramifying 25,600 miles law library association was secured. As attorney of territory. His new duties included the making for.and director of.the then constructing Kansas City, of contracts with railroads, and kept him in such Galveston and Lake Superior railroad (now a part active motion that he traveled an average of 30.000 of the main line of the Chicago, Burlington and miles a year over the different railway lines. His Quincy system) during those early years of thisfronduties brought him in contact with the leading rail- tier town's precarious existence, lie displayed a reroad men of the United States, and so forcibly did markable faith in the city of his adoption, and by his his business qualities impress them, that he was sound counsel and advice, many difficulties were

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overcome. While a member of the city council of Kansas city, Mr. Brown drew the right-of-way contract, and made the legal adjustments for the entrance into Kansas City of the Pacific railroad, it being now the main entrance into Kansas City of that great corporation, the Missouri Pacific railway. After many years of arduous application, finding his health impaired, he retired from practice in order to develop his large realty interests. Mr. Brown married on Nov. 3, 1858, Julia A. Shaffer, eldest daughter of William Shaffer, of Blair county, Pa., and of this union nine children were born, of whom six are now living. Early allying himself with the Presbyterian church, he has aided and upbuilded many of its projects, and has ever been among the first to advance the social aud religious welfare and prosperity of his community.

HOPPEB, George H., business man, was born at Shebbier, Devonshire county. Eng., Apr. 21, 1837, the son of John aud Lydia (Grittin) Hopper, who emigrated to America with their three children in 1840, and settled at Cleveland, O. There he attended public schools until fourteen years old, after which he served an apprenticeship of three years, learning the trade of tin, copper, and sheet-iron worker. In 1858 he joined a wagon train at Fort, Leavenworth, and went to Salt Lake City, but returned to Cleveland after an absence of nearly a vear, during which he had bad all the varied experiences attendant upon such a journey at that period. In 1800 he married Harriet A. Ganson, and shortly afterward removed to Logansport, Ind. He joined an Indiana regiment dunngthe civil war, re-enlisted in an Ohio regiment, and in 1867 his services were engaged by the Standard oil company in their cooperage and shipping department, to the management of which department he was speedily advanced. He established a beautiful summer home at Uuionville, O. He has been specially devoted to the trotting horse interest, aud has at Uuionville commodious

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his mother, when he was seven. His early educational advantages were meagre, but he made the most of them, aud was graduated with honors from Delaware college before he had reached his twentieth year. He studied law in the offices of St. George Tucker Campbell, Philadelphia, and at the University of Pennsylvania, receiving from the latter instisution the degreeof LL.B. in 1859. At this period of his life failing health necessitated a change of climate, and after winning his first case in the courts of Pennsylvania, he sought the shores of the Pacific in lH(i<). The state of California was at that time passing through her trying pioneer period, her situation Being made doubly precarious by the mutterings of civil war. McCullough, young, inexperienced and delicate, arrived on the rough scene just in time to perform an important part in the drama. He opened a law office and was acquiring a good practice when he was swept by the force of circumstances into the thickest of the fight for the preservation of the autonomy of the Union. The flood of population from the eastern states was composed of bitter and conflicting elements; secessionists from the South and Unionists from New England lived in close proximity, and feuds were constantly engendering riots. At this crisis Gen. E. V. Sumner arrived on the scene, and by a brilliant coup tViUit superseded Gen. Alliert Sidney Johnston in command of Fort Alcatraz, thereby frustrating the scheme of the southern sympathizers to separate California from the Union. Young McCullough, whose delicate health prevented camp service, set about to show his loyalty for the Union by a series of speeches, which immediately commanded the admiration and confidence of the Union element, to the legislature, and the following year, 1862, was returned to the state senate, aud in" 1863. notwithstanding his youth, elected attorney-general of the state. After four years of service in this trying position, he was, in 1867, renominated by his party, but failed of an election. His official" career having been brought to a close, be devoted the next five years to a highly remunerative leiral practice. He next visited the eastern states, and in 1871 married Eliza Hall Park, daughter of Trenor W. Park. A tour of Europe was taken; the scene of his labors in California again visited, and in 1873 be removed to southern Vermont. His talents and energy were now turned into a new channel. He did not return to the general practice of law, but interested himself in railroad, commercial and banking enterprises. From 1873 to 1883 he was vice-president and general manager of the Panama railway company, then president until 1888. Mr. McCullough was elected a director of the Erie railroad in 1884, and since 1888 has been chairman of the executive committee. He was the first president of the Chicago and Erie railroad in 1890; is president of the Bennington and Rutland railway company; president of the First national bank of North Benuinirton, Vt.; a director oi the New York security and trust company, of the Federal bank, and of the Fidelity and Casualty insurance company of New York. In political life, he has not permitted a campaign to pass, since lie made his first efforts on the western slope of the picturesque Sierra Nevada* in 1860, without taking active part therein. His service is freely offered, without expectation of reward, for he desires no public office.

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