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30 Americans 45 fishes 50 fishes abridgment Adam Smith amongst B's desire baker become boat boat-owner bootmaker capital Carthaginians cloth coal commodities competition consequently consume consumption creation of exchange day's labour definition of wealth diminished effect eight hours employed employers employment England English clothmakers Englishmen equal equivalent value exchanging power extent fact fisherman fishes a day give gold human improvement increased industry John Stuart Mill labour bestowed less maintenance Malthus Malthusian man's Marx means ment miners modities nature necessary non-possessor object over-production pair of boots political economy population possess exchange value produce of 30 quantity of labour question rate of profits rate of wages receive reduced remain result Ricardo rise share society subsistence suppose surplus surplus labour surplus value theory of value thereby things tion toil trade use-value useless wages and profits wages determine prices wants wheat
Page 225 - Hitherto it is questionable if all the mechanical inventions yet made have lightened the day's toil of any human being. They have enabled a greater population to live the same life of drudgery and imprisonment, and an increased number of manufacturers and others to make large fortunes.
Page 224 - If, therefore, the choice were to be made between Communism with all its chances, and the present state of society with all its sufferings and injustices; if the institution of private property necessarily carried with it as a consequence, that the produce of labour should be apportioned as we now see it, almost in an inverse ratio to the labour...
Page 239 - Through the animal and vegetable kingdoms Nature has scattered the seeds of life abroad with the most profuse and liberal hand; but has been comparatively sparing in the room and the nourishment necessary to rear them.
Page iv - England is full of wealth, of multifarious produce, supply for human want in every kind; yet England is dying of inanition. With unabated bounty the land of England blooms and grows; waving with yellow harvests; thick-studded with workshops, industrial implements, with fifteen millions of workers, understood to be the strongest, the cunningest and the willingest our Earth ever had...
Page 92 - We have more riches than any Nation ever had before; we have less good of them than any Nation ever had before. Our successful industry is hitherto unsuccessful; a strange success, if we stop here! In the midst of plethoric plenty, the people perish; with gold walls, and full barns, no man feels himself safe or satisfied.
Page 151 - Necessity, that imperious all-pervading law of nature, restrains them within the prescribed bounds. The race of plants and the race of animals shrink under this great restrictive law. And the race of man cannot, by any efforts of reason, escape from it.
Page 56 - ... the toil and trouble which it can save to himself, and which it can impose upon other people. What is bought with money, or with goods, is purchased by labour, as much as what we acquire by the toil of our own body.
Page 21 - Happily, there is nothing in the laws of Value which remains for the present or any future writer to clear up ; the theory of the subject is complete...
Page 53 - ... because a man's labour had become doubly efficient, and he could therefore produce twice the quantity of a commodity, he would necessarily receive twice the former quantity in exchange for it.
Page 150 - The positive checks to population are extremely various, and include every cause, whether arising from vice or misery, which in any degree contributes to shorten the natural duration of human life. Under this head, therefore, may be enumerated all unwholesome occupations, severe labour and exposure to the seasons, extreme poverty, bad nursing of children, great towns, excesses of all kinds, the whole train of common diseases and epidemics, wars, plague, and famine.