Ellipsometry and polarized light
Ellipsometry is a unique optical technique of great sensitivity for in situ non-destructive characterization of surface (inter-facial) phenomena (reactions) utilizing the change in the state of polarization of a light-wave probe. Although known for almost a century, the use of ellipsometry has increased rapidly in the last two decades. Among the most significant recent developments are new applications, novel and automated instrumentation and techniques for error-free data analysis. This book provides the necessary analytical and experimental tools needed for competent understanding and use of these developments. It is directed to those who are already working in the field and, more importantly, to the newcomer who would otherwise have to sift through several hundred published papers. The authors first present a comprehensive study of the different mathematical representations of polarized light and how such light is processed by optical systems, going on to show how these tools are applied to the analysis of ellipsometer systems. To relate ellipsometric measurements to surface properties, use is then made of electromagnetic theory. Experimental techniques and apparatus are described and the many interesting applications of ellipsometry to surface and thin-film phenomena are reviewed. This reference work is addressed to researchers and students with a strong interest in surface and thin-film physics and optics and their applications. It is a must for libraries in the fields of solid state physics, physical chemistry, electro-chemistry, metallurgy and optical engineering.
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The Polarization of Light Waves
E ASPNES Optical characterization by elUpsometry a prospective C103
A J SIEVERS and Z SCHLESINGER IR surface plasmon spectroscopy C1013
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ambient angle of incidence anisotropic axes azimuth angles bilinear transformation birefringence circle coherency matrix compensator complex amplitude complex plane complex polarization variable complex-plane representation constant contours coordinate system corresponding coupling coefficients depolarization described determined effect eigenvalues electric vector elements ellipse of polarization ellipsometer arrangement ellipticity angle Equation equi-azimuth equi-ellipticity film thickness function given by eq imperfection incident light input and output intensity transmittance interface isotropic Jones matrix Jones vector layer light beam light wave linear eigenpolarizations linear polarizations linearly medium modulated Mueller matrix nulling angles obtained optical devices optical properties optical system oxide parallel parameters partially polarized PCSA perpendicular photodetector plane of incidence plane wave Poincare sphere points polarized light polarizer and analyzer quasi-monochromatic ratio real axis reflection and transmission reflection coefficients refractive index represent respectively retarder rotation shown in fig sin2 Stokes vector Substituting substrate surface telescope tion totally polarized values wavelength zero