Alternatives to Animal Testing
Ronald E. Hester, Roy M. Harrison
Royal Society of Chemistry, Jan 1, 2006 - Science - 123 pages
(Publisher-supplied data) Animal experimentation has long been a controversial issue, with impassioned arguments on both sides of the debate. Increasingly it has become more expedient and feasible to develop new methods that avoid the use of animals. There is agreement on both sides that reduction and refinement of experiments on animals should be an important goal for the industries involved. Alternatives to Animal Testing, written by leading experts in the field, discusses the issues involved and approaches that can be taken. Topics include: the safety evaluation of chemicals; international validation and barriers to the validation of alternative tests; in vitro testing for endocrine disruptors; intelligent approaches to safety evaluation of chemicals;alternative tests and the regulatory framework. The book provides an up-to-date discussion of the current state of development of alternatives to animal testing and is ideal for professionals and academics in the field. It would also be of use for graduate students wishing to pursue a career in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.
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7th amendment acute alternative methods alternative tests Alternatives to Animal animal testing animal welfare Annex approach ATLA Altern binding broadly acceptable carcinogenicity cell lines concern conducted cosmetic products criteria currently data waivers ECVAM endocrine disruptors endpoints environment Environmental European Commission eye irritation gene genotoxicity hazardous properties hormone human health ICCVAM identify ingredients involves margin of safety metabolism NOAEL non-animal tests nuclear receptors OECD oestrogen phototoxicity potential predicted prevalidation proposed Q)SAR QSARs R.D. Combes read-across receptor reference dose registration relevant repeat dose replacement reporter gene reproductive toxicity risk assessment risk evaluation risk management Royal Society SCCNFP scheme scientific silico skin corrosivity skin irritation skin sensitisation specific steroidogenesis structure substance target organ test development test method testing strategy tion toxicity toxicity study toxicogenomics toxicokinetics Toxicol toxicological uncertainty factors validation process validation study vitro methods vitro tests vivo