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21 per cent 40 atmospheres according apparatus atmo atmospheric pressure attained backward return boiling Cailletet calefaction calories carbonic acid Claude Claude's cold composition compressed air compressor condensed contrary cooling corresponding critical temperature cubic metres curve d'Arsonval Dewar effect energy equal evaporation exchanger of temperatures expanded air expansion with external experiment Faraday frigorific furnished gaseous mixture gaseous phase h.p. hour Hampson heat helium hydrogen increase internal pressure isothermic kgms kilogramme less Linde Linde's liquefaction of gases liquefied liquid air liquid nitrogen liquid oxygen liquid phase litres low temperatures lower machine manufacture means mercury metal methyl chloride obtained oxygen and nitrogen patent perfect gas permanent gases Pictet piston point of fact portion practical produced progressively pure nitrogen pure oxygen realised recipient rectification recuperation remarkable saturated vapour separation sufficient sulphurous acid tion tube ture vacuum valve vapour tension volatile volume Waals yield
Page 2 - ... suddenly placed in very cold regions, — for, instance, in those of Jupiter or Saturn, — the water which at present forms our rivers and seas, and probably the greater number of the liquids which we know, would be transformed into solid mountains. On this supposition the air, or at least a part of the aeriform substances which compose it, would doubtless cease to exist in the state of an invisible fluid for want of a sufficient degree of heat ; it would return to the state of liquidity, and...
Page 2 - ... and even ceitain metallic substances, would expand, and become transformed into aeriform fluids, which would then become part of the atmosphere. On the contrary, if the earth were suddenly placed in very cold regions, — for, instance, in those of Jupiter or Saturn, — the water which at present forms our rivers and seas, and probably the greater number of the liquids which we know, would be transformed into solid mountains. On this supposition the air, or at least a part of the aeriform substances...
Page 59 - ... am perhaps doing wrong to say liquefied, because at the temperature obtained by the evaporation of sulphurous acid, say —29°, and at a pressure of 300 atmospheres, I see no liquid, but a mist so dense that I infer the presence of a vapour very near its point of liquefaction. I write to-day to M. Deleuil to ask him for some protoxide of nitrogen, by means of which I shall be able, without doubt, to see oxygen and carbonic oxide flow. " PS. I have just made an experiment which sets my mind greatly...
Page 59 - December 3rd, nor at that of the 10th, nor at that of the 17th. What did this reserve mean, corresponding so little with the intense satisfaction which the happy experimenter could not help feeling? The explanation is to be found in a circumstance wholly to his honour. Cailletet, whose brilliant work, we have said, had already attracted the attention of the scientific world, had become a candidate for a corresponding membership of the Academy ; the election was to take place on the ] 7th December,...
Page 64 - ... announces that he has seen the oxygen precipitated in the liquid state everything indicates that it was but a fugitive glimpse, and, on the other hand, the mist observed by M. Cailletet at the instant of escape shows that the oxygen had ceased to be transparent, — that is to say, gaseous,— and had become solid or liquid. To have seen the liquid or the mist, without collecting either, is all one. The final experiment is still to be made : it will consist in maintaining the oxygen liquid at...
Page 60 - Xow, the last evening but one before the 24th December, the day on which Dumas was to have presented to the Academy the discovery of their new correspondent, a dispatch reached the Institute. It announced that on that very day, the 22nd of December, oxygen had been liquefied, and it was signed, Raoul Pictet ! Happily for Cailletet, Sainte-Claire Deville, an old...
Page 165 - Claude had the satisfaction to at last see a thin thread of liquid escaping from the cock, and filling little by little one of the three litre liquid air holders which had so long waited for its appearance.
Page 59 - There was no trace of liquid dust in the tube. My gases (CO and O) are therefore certainly at the point of liquefaction, as this dust is only produced by vapours close to liquefaction. The forecasts of M. Bcrthelot are completely verified.
Page 59 - ... so dense that I was able to infer the presence of a vapour very close to its point of liquefaction. " I have written to-day to Mr. Deleuil to ask him for some protoxide of nitrogen, by means of which I shall doubtless be able to see carbonic oxide and oxygen flow.
Georges Claude, Liquid Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen (Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son, 1913), pp. 75-79, fn. p. 80. 11. Ibid., fn. p. 88. ...
www.hq.nasa.gov/ office/ pao/ History/ SP-4404/ notes-app-a.htm