Highland Sanctuary: Environmental History in Tanzania's Usambara Mountains
FOR MORE THAN A CENTURY, THE WORLD has recognized the extraordinary biological diversity of the forests of Tanzania's Usambara Mountains. As international attention has focused on forest conservation, farmers, foresters, biologists, and the Tanzanian state have realized that only complex negotiations will save these treasured, but rapidly disappearing, landscapes. Highland Sanctuary unravels the complex interactions among agriculture, herding, forestry, the colonial state, and the landscape itself. In his examination of the region's history of ecological transformation, Christopher Conte demonstrates how these forces have combined to create an ever-changing mosaic of forest and field. His study illuminates the debate over conservation, arguing that contingency and chance, the stuff of human history, have shaped forests in ways that rival the power of nature. In Highland Sanctuary, the forest becomes part of human history, rather than something outside of it. Highland Sanctuary cuts through a legacy of contention and ill will to inform contemporary conservation initiatives. Professor Conte explains how ecological changes take divergent paths in similar environments, in this case on mountains that harbor unique flora and fauna, and how these mountain environments achieve international importance as centers of biodiversity.
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1 Forming the Highland Sanctuary
2 Humanitys Imprint
3 Colonial Science and Agricultural Development at Kwai and Amani
4 Seeking the Good Forest
5 Transforming the Agricultural Landscape
6 Agriculture and the State
administration Adolf Engler Amani areas argued Athumani banana Bantu Basin Rehabilitation Scheme Baumann biological botanical British century Chankola Clegg coﬀee communities conﬂict Conservator of Forests crops cultivation cultural Dar es Salaam diﬀerent diﬃcult East African Agricultural Eastern Arc forests Eastern Arc Mountains ecological economic eﬀects eﬀorts environmental estates farmers farming Feierman ﬁelds ﬁrst Forest Department forest reserve forestry gardens German colonial German East Africa Gillman grazing herders highland Ibid indigenous irrigation Kilindi Kinyassi kitivo Kwai labor land-use landscape livestock Lukozi Lushoto District Maasai Magamba maize massif MBRS Mbugu ment Mganga Milne Milne’s Mlalo Basin Rehabilitation Mlola Muheza njaa oﬀered oﬃcial Pare pasture plains plant plantation plateau political population production provincial rainfall regional Salaam scientiﬁc scientists Shambaa Shume sisal soil erosion station Tanga Tanganyika Tanganyika Territory Tanzania timber tion trees tropical Usam Usambara District Usambara Mountains Usambara Scheme Usambara’s forests Wambugu West Usambara Woodcock