## Coordinate Systems and Map ProjectionsThe figure of the earth and the reference surfaces used in surveying and mapping; Coordinate reference systems on the plane; Coordinate reference systems on the sphere; The geometry of the spheroid; Some basic ideas about the mathematics of map projections; The ellipse of distortion; The appearance, classification and naming of map projections; Practical construction of map projections; Computation of projection coordinates; The analytical derivation of some map projections; Choosing a suitable map projection the principles; Choosing a suitable map projection the graphical and analytical methods; Discontinuities and deliberate distortions; Projections for navigation charts; Surveying and map projections; The transverse mercator projection; Photogrammetry andremote sensing using conventional photography; Projection transformations employed in photogrammetry and remote sensing using scanning sensors; Other methods of tranformation; Appendix I: Algebraic expressions for the coordinates and particular scales of the most important map projections. Appendix II: Table of projection coordinates for 15o graticule intersections of briesemeister's projection. Appendix III: The transverse mercator equations for a projection of the spheroid in detail. |

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### Contents

The Figure of the Earth and the Reference | 1 |

Gravity measurements | 9 |

Global triangulation schemes | 18 |

Copyright | |

57 other sections not shown

### Common terms and phrases

angle applied arc distance axes axis Azimuthal equal-area projection azimuthal projection beam compass calculated cartography central meridian centre Chapter chart coefficient conformal map conformal projection conical projection conventional corresponding cylindrical projections defined derived described determine digitising ellipse ellipsoid equal-area projection equations equidistant projection errors example expressed figure follows geodetic geographical coordinates geographical pole geoid geometrical Gnomonic projection graticule intersections grid coordinates illustrated in Fig isograms jection Landsat latitude length line of zero linear located longitude map projections master grid maximum angular deformation measured methods minimum-error navigation normal aspect numerical oblique aspect Ordnance Survey origin parallels and meridians particular scales photographs plane plotting polar coordinates Polyconic projection position principal scale pseudocylindrical radius reference represented rotation satellite scan Sinusoidal projection solution special property sphere spherical angle spherical surface spheroid standard parallels straight lines suitable Table transformation Transverse Mercator projection triangle values zero distortion