Restoring Streams in Cities: A Guide for Planners, Policymakers, and Citizens

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Island Press, Mar 1, 1998 - Architecture - 423 pages
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Conventional engineering solutions to problems of flooding and erosion are extremely destructive to natural environments. Restoring Streams in Cities presents viable alternatives to traditional practices that can be used both to repair existing ecological damage and to prevent such damage from happening.Ann L. Riley describes an interdisciplinary approach to stream management that does not attempt to "control" streams, but rather considers the stream as a feature in the urban environment. She presents a logical sequence of land-use planning, site design, and watershed restoration measures along with stream channel modifications and floodproofing strategies that can be used in place of destructive and expensive public works projects. She features examples of effective and environmentally sensitive bank stabilization and flood damage reduction projects, with information on both the planning processes and end results. Chapters provide: background needed to make intelligent choices, ask necessary questions, and hire the right professional help history of urban stream management and restoration information on federal programs, technical assistance and funding opportunities in-depth guidance on implementing projects: collecting watershed and stream channel data, installing revegetation projects, protecting buildings from overbank stream flowsProfusely illustrated and including more than 100 photos, Restoring Streams in Cities includes detailed information on all relevant components of stream restoration projects, from historical background to hands-on techniques. It represents the first comprehensive volume aimed at helping those involved with stream management in their community, and describes a wealth of options for the treatment of urban streams that will be useful to concerned citizens and professional engineers alike.
  

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Contents

The Basics
1
Watersheds and the Hydrologic Cycle
3
The Value of Streams and Restoration
5
Identify What Your Stream Needs
8
Whats the Hook for Community Interest?
12
Summary of Incentives for Urban Stream Restoration Projects
21
Strategies to Develop Political Support
22
Friends of Trashed Rivers
26
Managing Floodplains
211
The Army Corps of Engineers and National Flood Control
212
The Soil Conservation Service and Flood Control
214
Competing Turfs and FloodDamageReduction Strategies
215
CostBenefit Analysis and CostSharing Issues
217
An Integrated Geographic Approach to Flood Damages
218
The Need for Information on Flood Damages
219
The Federal Floodplain Programs in Transition
220

What Is Restoration?
27
Watershed Perspective Required
30
Neighborhood Perspective Required
31
Information Contacts
33
The Urban River Planners
41
River Corridor Planners and MultiObjective River Corridor Management
42
Floodplain Managers
43
Comprehensive Watershed Planning
48
State Regional and Local Watershed Planning
67
Action Planning School
75
Recent Trends and Recommendations
78
The Environmental Professionals
89
The Role of the Environmental Professional
91
The Significance of Riparian Environments
95
Common Causes of Damaged Streams
97
The Water Quality Connection to Riparian Woodlands
103
The Social Connection to Environmental Quality
104
River Scientists
111
Types of Stream Channels
115
Watershed Influences
117
Land Forms and Drainage Areas
119
Using a Topographic Map
120
Floodplains Terraces and Bankfull Channels
122
Concept of Stream Equilibrium
125
How Urbanization Can Change Watersheds and Streams
129
Urban Watershed Management
132
Monitoring the Changes
134
Changes to Stream Channels
136
FloodControl Channel Flows
141
Drainage Areas and Channel Shapes Sizes and Discharges
145
Significance of the Uniformity of Streams
150
The Challenges of Urban Stream Restoration
154
Hydraulic Engineers
161
Conventional Bank Stabilization Methods
167
The Problems with Conventional FloodControl Channel Design
169
The Unintended Results of Bank Stabilization Projects
176
Recent Trends in FloodDamage and Erosion Reduction Projects Design
177
Questions to Ask
181
If a Bank Stabilization Project Is Being Planned
183
Restoration Is Ancient History
189
An Ancient Heritage
190
The PostCivil War Conservation Movement
193
American Roots of Urban Stream Restoration
197
The Sport Fishing Associations
198
A Child of the Thirties
201
The Federal Watershed Management Programs of the New Deal
204
Trends in Flood Damages
221
The Army Corps in Transition
224
Future Opportunities and Uncertainties
241
The Natural Resources Conservation Service
246
A Different Model for Floodplain Management
252
The Federal Emergency Management Agency
253
Technical Issues of Floodplain Management
262
Floodplain Mapping
265
Priorities for Data Used in Developing Plans
267
Accommodating Changes in Land Use
269
Adequacy of StreamFlow Watershed and Floodplain Data for Planning
270
A Survey of Floodplain Restoration and Management Measures
273
Floodplain Restoration for Storage and Conveyance of Flows
278
FloodDamageReduction Measures Compatible with Local Community Character
281
Landscape Modification Measures
287
CitizenSupported Restoration Activities
299
Watershed Hydrology Data for Citizens to Collect
300
Flood Forecasting and High Water Marks
306
WaterQuality Monitoring and Watershed Inventories
308
WaterQuality Monitoring
309
Monitoring Methods
312
The Links between Monitoring and Restoration
316
Field Inventories
318
Field Checklist for Identifying Waterway Management Needs
319
Factors Adjacent to or in the Stream Channel
320
Physical Characteristics of the Stream Channel
321
Flood Flow Information
322
WaterQuality Monitoring Kits
323
Watershed and Stream Management for Property Owners
324
The Return of the Civilian Conservation Corps
329
The Status of the Conservation Corps
330
A Survey of Urban Watershed and Stream Restoration Methods
335
StormWater Management and Wetland Creation
340
Stopping Cullies the Watershed Killers
342
StreamChannel Restoration
354
Restoring the Balance in Stream Dynamics
355
Solving Problems with Channel Grades and Culverts
356
Restoring Stream Banks
360
Restoration for Particularly Difficult Urban Situations
383
The Steps to Designing a Restoration Project for a Degraded Urban Waterway
393
Design Considerations for Daylighting Projects
401
Glossary of Terms
405
Index
411
About the Author
425
Copyright

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About the author (1998)

Ann L. Riley is executive director of the Waterways Restoration Institute, where she works on the design and installation of stream restoration projects. She is involved in the evaluation of national water policy for the National Research Council, the Institute for Water Resources, and federal task forces.

A Video Tour of Ecological Restoration Techniques Led by Anne Riley (Video documentary - 61 min) is available from www.urbanstreamrestoration.com.

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