Khozi͡ain i rabotnik

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, 1970 - Russian language - 101 pages
0 Reviews
Tolstoy (18281910) wrote Master and Man in 1894, from an idea which originated two years earlier while he was organising food centres in the famine-stricken areas of central Russia. The story is of two individuals caught in a snowstorm. By showing how they react when faced with danger and lonely death, Tolstoy expressed implicitly what he felt to be essential to man for his understanding of the meaning of life and his acceptance of death. Mrs. Aitken has stressed the Russian text first published in 1895. She includes a brief introductory essay on Tolstoy and Master and Man and provides notes on the text and a full vocabulary.
  

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Selected pages

Common terms and phrases

1о Ье 1оок аге аз апй апс апс1 асу Бог валух Василий Ан Васйлий вать ВгекЬипоу вдруг верётье Вётер вётра видно вожжи вот впереди врёмя всё Ггот Гее1 глаза го говорил Гог головой Грйшкино ГЬе двор дёло дерёвни дом дорбги дороги дрёич другой думал егб её ему ёхать ещё засыпал зее зеет зотеопе ипр ир ке который лбшадь лошадь лубок мог может мужик Мухортый надо нё него нём Никите Никйта ним ноги ночевать нпр Ну оГ оГ Ыз оглобли одну оп оп1у опе'з опезе1Г опезеН опять остановился оуег пёред Петруха подумал потому пошёл проёхали прокурат р.Дтр раз рор руки сами санёй сани свёрху своё свой себя сёни сказал Василий Андрёич сказал Никита снег снёга снёгом сНт стал стороны ся тап тблько тепёрь То1з1оу том тотчас тоуе ты ТЬе уаз уеагз ужё уои хозяин хотёл чернобыльник что-то шади шаз Ше шубы Ыз Ыт Ьаз Ьаск Ьауе Ьеге Ьееп Ьесоте Ьо Ьу

About the author (1970)

Tolstoy's life was defined by moral and artistic seeking and by conflict with himself and his surroundings. Of the old nobility, he began by living the usual, dissipated life of a man of his class; however, his inner compulsion for moral self-justification led him in a different direction. In 1851 he became a soldier in the Caucasus and began to publish even while stationed there (Childhood [1852] and other works). Even more significant were his experiences during the Crimean War: the siege of Sevastopol provided the background for his sketches of human behavior in battle in the Sevastopol Stories (1855--56). After the war, Tolstoy mixed for a time with St. Petersburg literary society, traveled extensively abroad, and married Sophia Bers. The couple were happy for a long time, with Countess Tolstoy participating actively in her husband's literary and other endeavors. The center of Tolstoy's life became family, which he celebrated in the final section of War and Peace (1869). In this great novel, he unfolded the stories of several families in Russia during the Napoleonic period and explored the nature of historical causation and of freedom and necessity. A different note emerged in Anna Karenina (1876). Here, too, Tolstoy focused on families but this time emphasized an individual's conflict with society's norms. A period of inner crisis, depression, and thoughts of suicide culminated in Tolstoy's 1879 conversion to a rationalistic form of Christianity in which moral behavior was supremely important. Confession (1882) describes this profound transition. Tolstoy now began to proselytize his new-found faith through fiction, essays, and personal contacts. Between 1880 and 1883, he wrote three major works on religion. A supreme polemicist, he participated in debates on a large number of political and social issues, generally at odds with the government. His advocacy of nonresistance to evil attracted many followers and later had a profound influence on Mahatma Gandhi and, through him, Martin Luther King, Jr. (see Vol. 4). Tolstoy's stature as a writer and public figure was enormous both within Russia and abroad, greater than that of any other Russian writer. When the Orthodox Church excommunicated him in 1901, a cartoon depicted him as disproportionately larger than his ecclesiastical judges. Tolstoy's final years were filled with inner torment: Living as he did on a luxurious estate, he felt himself to be a betrayer of his own teachings. He also suffered from disputes with his wife over the disposition of his property, which she wished to safeguard for their children. In 1910, desperately unhappy, the aged writer left his home at Yasnaya Polyana. He did not get far; he caught pneumonia and died of heart failure at a railway station, an event that was headline news throughout the world. In the course of Tolstoy's career, his art evolved significantly, but it possessed a certain underlying unity. From the beginning, he concentrated on the inner life of human beings, though the manner of his analysis changed. The body of his writing is enormous, encompassing both fiction and a vast amount of theoretical and polemical material. Besides his three great novels---War and Peace, Anna Karenina, and Resurrection (1899)---he wrote many superb shorter works. Among these, The Death of Ivan Ilyich (1886) stands out as a literary masterpiece and fine philosophical text, while the short novel Hadji Murat (1904), set in the Caucasus and Russia during the reign of Nicholas I, is a gem of narration and plot construction. Tolstoy has been translated extensively. The Louise and Aylmer Maude and Constance Garnett translations are institutions (for many works, the only versions available) and are used by different publishers, sometimes in modernized versions. New translations by Rosemary Edmonds, David Magarshack, and Ann Dunigan are also justifiably popular.

Bibliographic information