History of Semiconductor Engineering (Google eBook)
performing ?rms were curtailed following the stock market decline and the subsequent economic slowdown of 2001 and 2002. The Federal Government was once the main source of the nation’s R&D funds, funding as much as 66. 7 percent of all U. S. R&D in 1964. The Federal share ?rst fell below 50 percent in 1979, and after 1987 it fell steadily, dr- ping from 46. 3 percent in that year to 25. 1 percent in 2000 (the lowest it has ever been since 1953). Adjusting for in?ation, Federal support decreased 18 percent from 1987 to 2000, although in nominal terms, Federal support grew from $58. 5 billion to $66. 4 billion during that period. Growth in industrial funding generally outpaced growth in Federal support, leading to the decline in Federal support as a proportion of the total. Fig. 2. Doctorates awarded in Engineering, Physics, and Mathematics: 1995–2002 [Source: National Science Foundation NSF 04–303 (October 2003)] Figure 1 explains the most signi?cant change in the industry which occurred in the early sixties. The industry, with pressure from Wall Street, could not ?nance long-range and risky basic research. The objective of basic research is to gain more comprehensive knowledge or understanding of the subject under study without speci?c applications in mind. Basic research advances scienti?c knowledge but does not have speci?c immediate commercial objectives. Basic research can fail and often will not bring results in a short period of time.
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Excellent research! Great book.
This book certainly has a "unique account" - unique but untrue, if the part concerning me is an example. Or if the omission of major advances in linear IC's made by Precision Monolithics (which I cofounded) is an example. I'm Marv Rudin, and did not "come from Pacific Semiconductor" as the book says - never worked for that company. Also, the account is mostly false regarding why and how Dave Fullagar was transferred to the Fairchild production facility to complete development of the maximum selling op amp ever, the Fairchild ua741. Although Dave reported to him, Garth Wilson wasn't involved in it as stated by the author. I was manager of linear IC R&D and Garth was my circuit design supervisor. Dave came directly to me, showed me his circuit, described its superiority to the ua709 and LM101, and informed me that Production had a linear process that included capacitors (which he needed in order to make an IC out of the compensated amplifier circuit he had bread boarded in our R&D lab). I had hired him because I recognized his outstanding potential, and I told him I hated to lose him but getting his amplifier into production to beat Widlar and National Semi's 101 amplifier (which lacked an internal compensation capacitor), he needed to transfer to the Production facility to use their process, which wasn't available in our R&D labs. He said he was an R&D engineer and refused to transfer out of R&D and into Production. I said if he would take his new amplifier through production the production engineering process its introduction would quickly dominate the market and he'd be famous and could write his ticket as far as where he would work in future (this ultimately came true). So I went to Gordon Moore, who headed Fairchild R&D, and asked him to help me to persuade Dave to transfer to produce the circuit even if it took a raise to do it. I stuck my neck out and said if done it would certainly take the op amp lead back from the National LM101. Gordon agreed. I then took Dave to his office, where he offered him a raise (5 or 10%--I don' remember the exact amount) to leave our Palo Alto R&D facility for the Fairchild Mt. View production facility, and promised to allow him to return to R&D if he so chose. Dave agreed and the rest is history. This is the truth and totally different from author Lojek's "unique" account. If one doesn't know the facts, his account is very likely to be unique. This review is by Marv Rudin firstname.lastname@example.org
Grown Junction and Diffused Transistors
Shockley Semiconductor Laboratories
Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation Subsidiary of Fairchild Camera and Instrument Company
Driving the Company Out of Business
Integrated Circuits outside Fairchild Semiconductor
Linear Integrated Circuits PreWidlar Era Prior to 1963