Construction Contract Claims, Changes and Dispute Resolution

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ASCE Publications, Jan 1, 1998 - Technology & Engineering - 272 pages
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Prepare yourself for the pitfalls and opportunities that arise during the process of contract claims and change orders with this practical guide and its straightforward, simple approaches to solving your claims and changes challenges. This thorough and comprehensive update of the highly successful 1977 edition is intended to serve as a handbook for those involved in construction contracting and in the prevention, preparation, management, and resolution of construction claims and change orders. The general guidelines and legal principles provided in this book were shaped by the outcome of federal and heavy construction cases and will be of value to those in the private sector, local governments, and commercial construction as well. This book seeks to merge principles of construction law with practical advice to aid those involved in the construction claims process.

Contractors, engineers, owners, and construction managers will all find this book to be a useful guide, reference, and training manual.

  

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Although this book is written for construction projects, but the concepts are appplicable to IT projects too. Especially the discussion on handling the claimable and non-claimable delays.

Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
12 DEFINITION OF A CLAIM
2
14 PUBLIC CONTRACTS HEAVY CONSTRUCTION
3
15 PRIVATE CONTRACTS COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL
4
17 POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR ADMINISTRATION
5
17d Active Claims Program
6
19 OWNERS DESIGNERS AND THEIR REPRESENTATIVES
7
IDENTIFICATION AND NOTIFICATION
8
87c Sponsoring Subcontractor Claims
96
89 AGCASAASC STANDARD FORM CONTRACT
97
810 CONCLUSION
99
PRICING
100
92b Forward Pricing Is Typically Preferred
101
92c Dealing with Risk in Forward Pricing
102
93b Last Resort
103
93c Four Conditions for Total Cost Claim
104

23 IDENTIFICATION OF CLAIMS AND CHANGE ORDERS
9
23d Communications
10
23f The Changes Clause
11
23g Warning Signs of Claim Situations
13
24 NOTIFICATION OF CLAIMS AND CHANGE ORDERS
14
25b Private Clauses
15
26 LATE NOTICE
16
27 FAILURE TO NOTIFY
17
29 FEDERAL CONTRACTS AND THE CONTRACT DISPUTES ACT
18
29b Notice Requirements for Appeal of Decision
20
29e Additional Notes on Claims Certification
21
DIFFERING SITE CONDITIONS
22
33 TYPE ONE CONDITIONSEXAMPLES
23
34 TYPE TWO CONDITIONSEXAMPLES
24
35 MANMADE CONDITIONSPREVIOUS CONSTRUCTION
25
36 FORCES OF NATURE
26
37b Disclaimers for Differing Site Conditions
27
37c Representations of Conditions Must Be Specifically Incorporated in Specifications
29
37d Inadequate Investigation
30
38 SUMMARY AND CHECKLIST
31
INTERPRETATION AND REQUIREMENTS OF CONTRACT SPECIFICATIONS
32
42b Reasonableness
33
42c Read the Contract as a Whole
34
42e Custom or Usage
35
42f Parol Evidence Rule
36
42h Conduct
37
43 DEFECTIVE SPECIFICATIONS
39
43b Suitability of Designated Methods or Materials
40
43c Possibility and Practicality
41
43f Cost and Notification Aspects
42
44 DUTY TO SEEK CLARIFICATION
43
44b Zone of Reasonableness
44
44c TwoStep Test
45
44d Not Part of Contract
46
46 DUTY TO PROCEED
47
DUTY TO INSPECT
48
47b Improper Acceptance
49
48 CONCLUSION
50
DELAYS AND ACCELERATIONS
51
53 NONCOMPENSABLE DELAYS
52
54 NONEXCUSABLE DELAYS
53
56 COMPENSABLE DELAYS
54
57 UNREASONABLE DELAYS
56
59 CONCURRENT DELAYS
58
510 PROVING DELAY AND DELAY COSTS
59
51Od Delays Due to Differing Site Conditions
60
511 NO DAMAGE FOR DELAY CLAUSES
61
513b Notice Request for Time Extension
62
513d Identification
63
514 PROVING DELAYS TIME EXTENSIONS AND ACCELERATION
64
516 CONCLUSION
65
RECORDS AND DOCUMENTATION
66
63 TIME CARDS
67
65 PRODUCTION RATES
68
69 CORRESPONDENCE AND TRANSMITTAL LOGS
69
611 DAILY REPORTS
70
613 SPECIAL FORMS FOR CLAIMS AND CHANGE ORDER RECORDS
71
614 MONTHLY CLAIMS REVIEW
72
615 CONCLUSION
73
USE OF PROJECT SCHEDULES AND THE CRITICAL PATH METHOD IN CLAIMS
74
71b Obstacles to Use of CPM for Construction Scheduling
75
72 USE OF CPM IN CLAIMS ANALYSIS
76
73 PITFALLS TO AVOID IN CPM CLAIMS ANALYSIS
77
74 CONSTRUCTION OF ASPLANNED SCHEDULE
79
74b Additional Considerations of Schedule Preparation
80
75 FLOAT
81
77 CONCURRENT DELAY
84
79 SCHEDULE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES FOR CLAIMS SUPPORT
85
79c Time Impact Analysis
86
79d Collapsed AsBuilt But For
87
79f Other Methods
88
711 CONCLUSION
89
SUBCONTRACTORS AND SUPPLIERS
90
83 CONTRACTORSUBCONTRACTOR RELATIONSHIP
91
85 SUPPLIERS
92
85c Proprietary SpecificationsContractors Right to Substitute
93
85d Supplier Schedules
94
87 OTHER CONTRACTORSUBCONTRACTOR ISSUES
95
94a Actual Cost
105
95 THE PROPOSALREQUEST FOR EQUITABLE ADJUSTMENT
106
95c Production Rates
107
95d Overhead and Profit
108
95d2 Overhead on large claims
109
95d3 Home office overheadEichleay formula
110
95d4 Profit
111
96 USE OF FORMS
112
98 IMPACT AND INEFFICIENCY COSTS
113
98b Specific Identifiable Extra Work
114
98c1 Disruption
115
98c3 Increasing the size of crews
116
99 OTHER ISSUES OF CLAIMS PRICING
117
99b Legal Fees Change Orders and Claim Preparation Costs
118
99c Use of Expert Opinions
119
910 CONCLUSION
120
NEGOTIATIONS
121
102 PREPARATION AND KNOWLEDGE
122
104 PREPARATION FOR NEGOTIATION MEETING
123
105 TACTICSCONTROL OF THE MEETING
124
106 TACTICSLARGE CLAIMS
125
107 OTHER NEGOTIATION TACTICS
126
109 AUTHORITY TO NEGOTIATE
127
DISPUTES AVOIDANCE RESOLUTION AND ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION
128
113 PARTNERING
129
113d Obstacles to Partnering
130
113d1 Tradition of construction
131
113e Results of Partnering
132
114b DRB Procedures
133
114c DRB Costs
134
114d2 High resolution rate
135
114e International Applications
136
115 ESCROW BID DOCUMENTS
137
117 ARBITRATION
138
118 MEDIATION
139
119 OTHER ADR METHODS
140
119b MedArb
141
1111 FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE AND JUDICIAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION
142
1111a Federal Contracts
143
1111b Private Contracts and State and Local Public Contracts
144
TERMINATION
145
122a Termination for Default
146
122a2 Damages owed by contractor
147
122b1 What to do when you receive a notice of termination for convenience
148
122c Notice of Termination
149
123b Suspension for Convenience
150
124 CONCLUSION
151
CONCLUSION
152
132a Contractors Role
154
134 LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS
155
135 USE OF EXPERTS
156
Appendix 1 Contract Disputes Act of 1978FAR 332
159
Appendix 2 FAR 522 Test of Provisions and Clauses
164
Appendix 3 AIA A201
186
Appendix 4 EJCDC 19108
192
Appendix 5 Site Investigation Report Form
203
Appendix 6 RULES OF CONTRACT INTERPRETATION Restatement of Contracts
205
Appendix 7 Sources of Overtime Statistics
206
Appendix 8 Sample Daily Production Report
207
Appendix 9 Change Order Initiation Form Instructions
208
Appendix 10 Change Order Status Cover Letter
211
Appendix 11 Sample Schecule Cover Letter
212
Appendix 12 AGCASAASC
213
Appendix 13 Flat Rate Pricing System
220
Appendix 14 Change Order Proposal Form
222
Appendix 15 PRICING CHECKLIST
223
Appendix 16 Construction Operations Learning Centers
224
Effect of crowding on labor efficiency
225
Composite effects of crew overloading
226
Figure 1 Productivity as a Function of Work Days Per Week and Work Hours Per Day BLS 917 Findings
227
Figure 2 Cumulative Effect of Overtime on Productivity 50 and 60 Hour Workweeks
228
Appendix 17 Federal Acquisition Regulation
229
Appendix 18 ASBCA ADR Sample Forms
238
Appendix 19 DART Declaration
245
Appendix 20 INDEX TO LEGAL CITATIONS
247
BIBLIOGRAPHY
251
INDEX
253
Copyright

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About the author (1998)

Paul Levin is a Senior Manager of Barrington Consulting Group.

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