Interaction Ritual Chains

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Princeton University Press, 2004 - Social Science - 439 pages
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Sex, smoking, and social stratification are three very different social phenomena. And yet, argues sociologist Randall Collins, they and much else in our social lives are driven by a common force: interaction rituals. Interaction Ritual Chains is a major work of sociological theory that attempts to develop a "radical microsociology." It proposes that successful rituals create symbols of group membership and pump up individuals with emotional energy, while failed rituals drain emotional energy. Each person flows from situation to situation, drawn to those interactions where their cultural capital gives them the best emotional energy payoff. Thinking, too, can be explained by the internalization of conversations within the flow of situations; individual selves are thoroughly and continually social, constructed from the outside in.

The first half of Interaction Ritual Chains is based on the classic analyses of Durkheim, Mead, and Goffman and draws on micro-sociological research on conversation, bodily rhythms, emotions, and intellectual creativity. The second half discusses how such activities as sex, smoking, and social stratification are shaped by interaction ritual chains. For example, the book addresses the emotional and symbolic nature of sexual exchanges of all sorts--from hand-holding to masturbation to sexual relationships with prostitutes--while describing the interaction rituals they involve. This book will appeal not only to psychologists, sociologists, and anthropologists, but to those in fields as diverse as human sexuality, religious studies, and literary theory.

  

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Contents

Chapter 1 THE PROGRAM OF INTERACTION RITUAL THEORY
1
Conflicting Terminologies
5
TRADITIONS OF RITUAL ANALYSIS
7
Functionalist Ritualism
11
Goffmans Interaction Ritual
14
The CodeSeeking Program
23
The Cultural Turu
28
CLASSIC ORIGINS OF IR THEORY IN DURKHEIMS SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION
30
INTELLECTUAL NETWORKS AND CREATIVE THINKING
188
NONINTELLECTUAL THINKING
194
Anticipated and Reverberated Talk
195
Thought Chains and Situational Chains
197
Tlie Metaphor of Dialogue among Parts of the Self
201
VERBAL INCANTATIONS
203
SPEEDS OF THOUGHT
209
INTERNAL RITUAL AND SELFSOLIDARITY
216

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INTERACTION RITUAL FOR GENERAL SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY
38
THE MUTUALFOCUS EMOTIONALENTRAINMENT MODEL
45
Formal Rituals and Natural Rituals
47
Failed Rituals Empty Rituals Forced Rituals
48
Is Bodily Presence Necessary?
51
THE MICROPROCESS OF COLLECTIVE ENTRAINMENT IN NATURAL RITUALS
63
Conversational TurnTaking as Rhythmic Entrainment
64
Experimental and MicroObservational Evidence on Rhythmic Coordination and Emotional Entruinment
73
SOLIDARITY PROLONGED AND STORED IN SYMBOLS
79
RULES FOR UNRAVELING SYMBOLS
93
EMOTIONAL ENERGY AND THE TRANSIENT EMOTIONS
100
DISRUPTIVE AND LONGTERM EMOTIONS OR DRAMATIC EMOTIONS AND EMOTIONAL ENERGY
103
Interaction Ritual as Emotion Transformer
105
STRATIFIED INTERACTION RITUALS
109
Power Rituals
110
Status Rituals
113
Emotional Energy
116
Emotion Contest and Conflict Situations
119
SHORTTERM OR DRAMATIC EMOTIONS
123
Transformations from ShortTerm Emotions into LongTerm Emotional Energy
127
THE STRATIFICATION OF EMOTIONAL ENERGY
129
MEASURING EMOTIONAL ENERGY AND ITS ANTECEDENTS
131
Chapter 4 INTERACTION MARKETS AND MATERIAL MARKETS
139
PROBLEMS OF THE RATIONAL COSTBENEFIT MODEL
141
THE MARKET FOR RITUAL SOLIDARITY
147
MatchUps of Symbols and Complementarity of Emotions
149
EMOTIONAL ENERGY AS THE COMMON DENOMINATOR OF RATIONAL CHOICE
156
l Material Production Is Motivated by the Need for Resources for Producing IRs
158
II Emotional Energy Is Generated by WorkSituation IRs
161
III Material Markets Are Embedded in an Ongoing Flow of IRs Generating Social Capital
163
Altruism
166
When Are Individuals Most Materially SelfInterested?
168
EESeeking Constrained by Material Resources
169
SOCIOLOGY OF EMOTIONS AS THE SOLUTION TO RATIONAL CHOICE ANOMALIES
172
The Microsociology of Material Considerations
174
Situational Decisions without Conscious Calculation
179
INTERNALIZED SYMBOLS AND THE SOCIAL PROCESS OF THINKING
181
METHODS FOR GETTING INSIDE OR BACK OUTSIDE
182
Applications
219
A THEORY OF SEXUAL INTERACTION
221
SEX AS INDIVIDUAL PLEASURESEEKING
226
SEX AS INTERACTION RITUAL
228
NONGENITAL SEXUAL PLEASURES AS SYMBOLIC TARGETS
236
SEXUAL NEGOTIATION SCENES RATHER THAN CONSTANT SEXUAL ESSENCES
248
PrestigeSeeking and Public Eroticization
250
Chapter 7 SITUATIONAL STRATIFICATION
256
MACRO AND MicROSrruATioNAL CLASS STATUS AND POWER
261
Status Group Boundaries and Categorical identities
266
Categorical Deference and Situational Deference
276
DPower and EPower
282
HISTORICAL CHANGE IN SITUATIONAL STRATIFICATION
286
TOBACCO RITUAL AND ANTIRITUAL SUBSTANCE INGESTION AS A HISTORY OF SOCIAL BOUNDARIES
295
INADEQUACIES OF THE HEALTH AND ADDICTION MODEL
297
RELAXATIONWITHDRAWAL RITUALS CAROUSING RITUALS ELEGANCE RITUALS
303
Social Display and Solitary Cult
315
FAILURES AND SUCCESSES OF ANTITOBACCO MOVEMENTS
324
Aesthetic Complaints and Struggle over Status Display Standards
325
AntiCarousing Movements
326
Respectable Women Join the Carousing Cult
327
The HealthOriented AntiSmoking Movement of the Late Twentieth Century
329
THE VULNERABILITY OF SITUATIONAL RITUALS AND THE MOBILIZATION OF AmrCAROUSING MOVEMENTS
335
INDIVIDUALISM AND INWARDNESS AS SOCIAL PRODUCTS
343
THE SOCIAL PRODUCTION OF INDIVIDUALITY
345
SEVEN TYPES OF INTROVERSION
349
Socially Excluded Persons
351
Situational Introverts
352
Alienated Introverts
353
Solitary Cultists
354
Intellectual Introverts
355
Neurotic or HyperReflexive Introverts
358
THE MICROHISTORY OF INTROVERSION
360
THE MODERN CULT OF THE INDIVIDUAL
368
CHAPTER 1 THE PROGRAM OF INTERACTION RITUAL THEORY
373
REFERENCES
415
INDEX
433
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About the author (2004)

Randall Collins is Professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania.

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