Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 28, 2008 - Science - 587 pages
2 Reviews
The aim of this monograph is to outline the physics of image formation, electron–specimen interactions, and image interpretation in transmission el- tron microscopy. Since the last edition, transmission electron microscopy has undergone a rapid evolution. The introduction of monochromators and - proved energy ?lters has allowed electron energy-loss spectra with an energy resolution down to about 0.1 eV to be obtained, and aberration correctors are now available that push the point-to-point resolution limit down below 0.1 nm. After the untimely death of Ludwig Reimer, Dr. Koelsch from Springer- Verlag asked me if I would be willing to prepare a new edition of the book. As it had served me as a reference for more than 20 years, I agreed without hesitation. Distinct from more specialized books on speci?c topics and from books intended for classroom teaching, the Reimer book starts with the basic principles and gives a broad survey of the state-of-the-art methods, comp- mented by a list of references to allow the reader to ?nd further details in the literature. The main objective of this revised edition was therefore to include the new developments but leave the character of the book intact. The presentation of the material follows the format of the previous e- tion as outlined in the preface to that volume, which immediately follows. A few derivations have been modi?ed to correspond more closely to modern textbooks on quantum mechanics, scattering theory, or solid state physics.
  

What people are saying - Write a review

User Review - Flag as inappropriate

nice book....but not allowed to copy..
Please suggest if u have any solution for that one.

Contents

66 Image Restoration and Specimen Reconstruction
249
662 Methods of Optical Analog Filtering
250
663 Digital Image Restoration
252
664 Alignment by CrossCorrelation
254
665 Averaging of Periodic and Aperiodic Structures
255
67 ThreeDimensional Reconstruction
258
672 Electron Tomography
259
68 Lorentz Microscopy
262

125 Xray and AugerElectron Microanalysis
14
Particle Optics of Electrons
16
212 Deflection by Magnetic and Electric Fields
20
22 Electron Lenses
22
222 Optics of an Electron Lens with a BellShaped Field
25
223 Special Electron Lenses
29
23 Lens Aberrations
31
232 Spherical Aberration
32
233 Astigmatism and Field Curvature
34
234 Distortion
36
235 Coma
37
236 Anisotropic Aberrations
38
24 Correction of Aberrations and Microscope Alignment
40
242 Correction of Spherical and Chromatic Aberrations
42
243 Microscope Alignment
43
Wave Optics of Electrons
45
312 Probability Density and Wave Packets
49
313 ElectronOptical Refractive Index and the Schrödinger Equation
51
314 Electron Interferometry and Coherence
53
32 Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffraction
55
322 Fresnel Fringes
59
323 Fraunhofer Diffraction
61
324 Mathematics of Fourier Transforms
63
33 WaveOptical Formulation of Imaging
70
332 WaveOptical Theory of Imaging
73
Elements of a Transmission Electron Microscope
77
41 Electron Guns
78
412 Energy Spread
81
413 Gun Brightness
82
414 Thermionic Electron Guns
84
415 Schottky Emission Guns
88
416 FieldEmission Guns
89
42 The Illumination System of a TEM
90
422 ElectronProbe Formation
93
423 Illumination with an Objective Prefield Lens
96
43 Specimens
98
432 Specimen Mounting
99
433 Specimen Manipulation
100
44 The Imaging System of a TEM
103
442 Imaging Modes of a TEM
104
443 Magnification and Calibration
107
444 Depth of Image and Depth of Focus
108
45 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy STEM
109
452 Dedicated STEM
112
453 Theorem of Reciprocity
113
46 Electron Spectrometers and Imaging Energy Filters
115
461 Postcolumn Prism Spectrometer
116
462 Wien Filter
119
464 Operating Modes with Energy Filtering
124
47 Image Recording and Electron Detection
126
472 Photographic Emulsions
127
473 Imaging Plate
131
474 Detector Noise and Detection Quantum Efficiency
132
475 LowLightLevel and ChargeCoupledDevice CCD Cameras
134
476 Semiconductor and Scintillation Detectors
138
477 Faraday Cages
139
ElectronSpecimen Interactions
141
512 Energy Transfer in an ElectronNucleus Collision
143
513 Elastic Differential Cross Section for SmallAngle Scattering
146
514 Total Elastic Cross Section
152
52 Inelastic Scattering
153
522 Differential Cross Section for SingleElectron Excitation
156
523 Bethe Surface and Compton Scattering
158
524 Approximation for the Total Inelastic Cross Section
162
525 Dielectric Theory and Plasmon Losses in Solids
163
526 SurfacePlasmon Losses
171
53 Energy Losses by InnerShell Ionization
174
533 EnergyLoss NearEdge Structure ELNES
179
534 Extended EnergyLoss Fine Structure EXELFS
182
535 Linear and Circular Dichroism
183
54 MultipleScattering Effects
184
542 Energy Distribution of Transmitted Electrons
186
543 ElectronProbe Broadening by Multiple Scattering
188
544 Electron Diffusion Backscattering and SecondaryElectron Emission
192
Scattering and Phase Contrast for Amorphous Specimens
195
61 Scattering Contrast
196
612 DarkField Mode
201
613 Examples of Scattering Contrast
202
614 Improvement of Scattering Contrast by Energy Filtering
205
615 Scattering Contrast in the STEM Mode
208
616 Measurement of Mass Thickness and Total Mass
209
62 Phase Contrast
211
622 Defocusing Phase Contrast of Supporting Films
212
623 Examples of Phase Contrast
215
624 Theoretical Methods for Calculating Phase Contrast
216
625 Imaging of a Scattering Point Object
218
626 Relation between Phase and Scattering Contrast
220
63 Imaging of Single Atoms
221
632 Imaging of Single Atoms in the STEM Mode
225
64 ContrastTransfer Function CTF
228
642 Influence of Energy Spread and Illumination Aperture
230
643 The CTF for TiltedBeam and HollowCone Illumination
233
644 Contrast Transfer in STEM
236
645 Phase Contrast by Inelastically Scattered Electrons
237
646 Improvement of the CTF Inside the Microscope
238
65 Electron Holography
241
652 SingleSideband Holography
244
653 OffAxis Holography
245
654 Reconstruction of OffAxis Holograms
246
682 Imaging Modes of Lorentz Microscopy
264
683 Imaging of Electrostatic Specimen Fields
270
Theory of Electron Diffraction
272
71 Fundamentals of Crystallography
274
712 The Reciprocal Lattice
279
713 Construction of Laue Zones
282
72 Kinematical Theory of Electron Diffraction
283
722 Structure Amplitude and Lattice Amplitude
285
723 Column Approximation
289
73 Dynamical Theory of Electron Diffraction
292
732 Formulation of the Dynamical Theory as a System of Differential Equations
293
733 Formulation of the Dynamical Theory as an Eigenvalue Problem
294
734 Discussion of the TwoBeam Case
298
74 Dynamical Theory Including Absorption
302
742 Absorption of the BlochWave Field
306
743 Dynamical nBeam Theory
311
744 The Bethe Dynamical Potential and the Critical Voltage Effect
313
75 Intensity Distribution in Diffraction Patterns
317
752 Intensity of DebyeScherrer Rings
318
753 Influence of Thermal Diffuse Scattering
321
754 Kikuchi Lines and Bands
323
755 Electron Spectroscopic Diffraction
326
ElectronDiffraction Modes and Applications
329
812 Electron Diffraction Using a Rocking Beam
331
813 Electron Diffraction Using a Stationary Electron Probe
332
814 Electron Diffraction Using a Rocking Electron Probe
336
815 Further Diffraction Modes in TEM
338
82 Some Uses of Diffraction Patterns with Bragg Reflections
342
822 Texture Diagrams
343
823 Crystal Structure
345
824 Crystal Orientation
347
825 Examples of Extra Spots and Streaks
349
83 ConvergentBeam Electron Diffraction CBED
352
833 ChargeDensity Distributions
353
834 HighOrder Laue Zone HOLZ Patterns
354
835 HOLZ Lines
355
836 LargeAngle CBED
357
Imaging of Crystalline Specimens and Their Defects
359
91 Diffraction Contrast of Crystals Free of Defects
360
912 DarkField Imaging
362
913 Moiré Fringes
365
914 The STEM Mode and Multibeam Imaging
367
915 Energy Filtering of Diffraction Contrast
369
916 Transmission of Crystalline Specimens
370
92 Calculation of Diffraction Contrast of Lattice Defects
373
922 MatrixMultiplication Method
375
923 BlochWave Method
376
93 Planar Lattice Faults
378
932 Dynamical Theory of StackingFault Contrast
379
933 Antiphase and Other Boundaries
383
94 Dislocations
385
942 Dynamical Effects in Dislocation Images
390
943 WeakBeam Imaging
391
944 Determination of the Burgers Vector
394
95 Lattice Defects of Small Dimensions
396
952 Defect Clusters
398
96 HighResolution Electron Microscopy HREM of Crystals
400
962 General Aspects of CrystalStructure Imaging
402
963 Methods for Calculating LatticeImage Contrast
405
964 Simulation Matching and Reconstruction of Crystal Images
407
965 Measurement of Atomic Displacements in HREM
409
966 CrystalStructure Imaging with a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope
411
97 Imaging of Atomic Surface Steps and Structures
412
972 Reflection Electron Microscopy
416
973 SurfaceProfile Imaging
418
Elemental Analysis by Xray and Electron EnergyLoss Spectroscopy
419
1012 Characteristic Xray and AugerElectron Emission
421
102 Xray Microanalysis in a Transmission Electron Microscope
425
1022 EnergyDispersive Spectrometry EDS
427
1023 Xray Emission from Bulk Specimens and ZAF Correction
431
1024 Xray Microanalysis of Thin Specimens
434
1025 Xray Microanalysis of Organic Specimens
436
103 Electron EnergyLoss Spectroscopy
437
1032 KramersKronig Relation
439
1033 Background Fitting and Subtraction
441
1034 Deconvolution
442
1035 Elemental Analysis by InnerShell Ionizations
444
104 ElementDistribution Images
447
1042 ElementDistribution Images Formed by Electron Spectroscopic Imaging
448
1043 ThreeWindow Method
449
1044 WhiteLine Method
450
105 Limitations of Elemental Analysis
452
1053 Counting Statistics and Sensitivity
453
1054 Resolution and Detection Limits for Electron Spectroscopic Imaging
456
Specimen Damage by Electron Irradiation
459
1112 Generation of Heat by Electron Irradiation
461
1113 Calculation of Specimen Temperature
463
112 Radiation Damage of Organic Specimens
466
1122 Quantitative Methods of Measuring Damage Effects
470
1123 Methods of Reducing Radiation Damage
477
1124 Radiation Damage and High Resolution
479
113 Radiation Damage of Inorganic Specimens
480
1132 Radiation Damage by KnockOn Collisions
482
114 Contamination
484
1142 Methods for Decreasing Contamination
485
1143 Dependence of Contamination on Irradiation Conditions
486
References
491
Index
575
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

About the author (2008)

Reimer, University of Munster, Germany.