Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens
Landed wealth was crucial for the economies of all Greek city-states and, despite its peculiarities, Athens was no exception in that respect. This monograph is the first exhaustive treatment of sacred and public - in other words the non-private - real property in Athens. Following a survey of modern scholarship on the topic, Papazarkadas scrutinizes literary, epigraphic, and archaeological evidence in order to examine lands and other types of realty administered by the polis of Athens and its constitutional and semi-official subdivisions (such as tribes, demes, and religious associations). Contrary to earlier anachronistic models which saw sacred realty as a thinly disguised form of state property, the author perceives the sanctity of temene (sacred landholdings) as meaningful, both conceptually and economically. In particular, he detects a seamless link between sacred rentals and cultic activity. This link is markedly visible in two distinctive cases: the border area known as Sacred Orgas, a constant source of contention between Athens and Megara; and the moriai, Athena's sacred olive-trees, whose crop was the coveted prize of the Panathenaic games. Both topics are treated in separate appendices as are several other problems, not least the socio-economic profile of those involved in the leasing of sacred property, emerging from a detailed prosopographical analysis. However, certain non-private landholdings were secular and alienable, and their exploitation was often based on financial schemes different from those applied in the case of temene. This gives the author the opportunity to analyze and elucidate ancient notions of public and sacred ownership.
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Sacred and Public Land Modern Scholarly Responses
2 The Athenian Polis as Administrator of Sacred Realty
3 The Constitutional Subunits of Athens as Administrators of Realty
4 The NonConstitutional Associations of Athens as Administrators of Realty
administration Agora XIX L6 Amphiaraos Andreyev apodektai archon Arist Athena Polias Athenian Athens attested Attic basileus belonging Classical Cleisthenes cleruchies concerning consecrated cult cultic decree demarch deme Demosthenes divine document drachmas Eleusinian Eleusis epigraphical evidence Faraguna Ferguson ﬁnancial ﬁne ﬁrst fourth century funds gene genos Goddesses groups guarantor Herakles horoi Hypereides I.Eleusis I.Rhamnous identiﬁcation IG I3 IG II2 income inscription interpretation Kerykes Lambert landed assets landholdings Langdon leasing lessee LGPN Megarians metics moriai ôcí ŒÆd ofﬁce ofﬁcials ôHí ôïF olive-trees Orgas orgeones Oropos Osborne Panathenaia Panathenaic Panathenaic amphorae Papazarkadas Parker patronym phratries Piraeus poletai polis prosopographical prytany question Rationes Centesimarum realty records relevant religious rent restoration Rhamnous Rhodes Rosivach sacred estates sacred lands Sacred Orgas sacred property sacred rentals sacriﬁces Salaminioi sanctuary scholars seems shrine Sounion speciﬁc suggested temene Tﬁs tion tribal tribes Walbank Whitehead 1986