The Medical Mandarins: The French Academy of Medicine in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

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Oxford University Press, Jan 1, 1995 - Medical - 306 pages
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This wide-ranging and imaginative book examines the social and scientific role of the French Academy of Medicine from its creation in 1820 to the outbreak of the Second World War. The first chapters focus on the institution and its activities, including the evaluation of medical innovations and the cultivation of professional memory through eulogies and institutional art. Weisz argues that the Academy was gradually transformed from a low-status public institution that was central to French medical science in the nineteenth century to an "establishment" institution largely irrelevant to medical science but playing a key role in public health policy. The second half of the book uses the activities and literary productions of the Academy to explore broader issues of medical history. The Academy's role in the regulation and scientific study of mineral waters illuminates processes of discipline formation in medical science and explores the therapeutic specificity of French medicine. Academic debates are used to investigate the appropriation of new research techniques like animal experimentation and quantification in therapeutic reasoning. Academic eulogies provide a starting point for the evolving medical and scientific reputation of Laennec, the inventor of ausculation, Using techniques of prosopography applied to the membership of the Academy, Weisz goes on to analyze the role of the Parisian medical elite in French medicine and its social place within the French bourgeoisie. His concluding chapter examines the emerging self-images of this Parisian elite in academic eulogies.
  

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Contents

Creating the French Royal Academy of Medicine
3
The Academy and Its Structures
33
Communication
62
Commissions and Prizes
87
Representation and Memory in the Academy
112
The Academy and Mineral Waters
137
Academic Debate and Therapeutic Reasoning in
159
Creating a Modern Medical Hero
189
Academic Perspectives on the Parisian Medical Elite
213
Elite Medical Careers in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
237
The Medical Elite in French Society
257
Conclusion
285
Select Bibliography
291
Index
299
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About the author (1995)

George Weisz is at McGill University.

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