Concrete: microstructure, properties, and materials
This textbook presents the art and science of concrete in a simple, clear, hands-on manner, focusing on the following: Cement and concrete are predicted to be the premier building material of the 21st Century; Includes unique diagrams, photographs, and summary tables; Updated to include new chapters on non-destructive methods for concrete; future challenges in concrete technology; an increased number of examples of concrete applications; and new developments in durability.
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Microstructure and Properties of Hardened Concrete
Microstructure of Concrete
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ACI Committee air-entraining ASTM calcium aluminate cement calcium hydroxide calcium silicate capillary cement concrete cement content cement hydration cementitious Chap chemical clinker coarse aggregate coefficient composition compressive strength Concr concrete containing concrete mixtures concrete strength concrete structures construction corrosion cracking creep crete curing deterioration drying shrinkage durability effect elastic modulus ettringite expansion fibers Figure fly ash fracture fresh concrete gypsum hardened heat of hydration high-strength concrete hydrated cement paste hydration products hydration reactions increase interfacial transition zone load mass concrete material matrix maximum method microcracks microstructure mineral admixtures mix proportions mixing water mortar percent permeability pores porosity pozzolan reaction reduce reinforced concrete resistance rocks seawater shown in Fig silica fume slump specimens steel strain strength of concrete stress sulfate attack superplasticizer surface Table temperature tensile strength tensile stress thermal typical voids volume water-cement ratio water-reducing workability