The Modernity of Tradition: Political Development in India

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University of Chicago Press, Jul 15, 1984 - Political Science - 316 pages
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Stressing the variations in meaning of modernity and tradition, this work shows how in India traditional structures and norms have been adapted or transformed to serve the needs of a modernizing society. The persistence of traditional features within modernity, it suggests, answers a need of the human condition.

Three areas of Indian life are analyzed: social stratification, charismatic leadership, and law. The authors question whether objective historical conditions, such as advanced industrialization, urbanization, or literacy, are requisites for political modernization.
  

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European Pseudo Scholors of Dravidology hardly know anything about Dravidians. Most of the Europeans claim that Christianity existed in India for two thousand years. But none of the Dravidian-Indian records never mentioned about Christianity. Christianity was not a known religeon to the Villavar- Nadalvar rulers of Tamil Nadu and Kerala whose reign declined only after 1310 AD. When Euroepan arrived in Kerala in 1498 Kerala was still a Tamil country. When Europeans left Kerala in 1947 no Tamils were left alive. Villavar people were slaves under the British whose allies were Nepalese from Ahichatram who had established their kingdoms in the fourteenth century. Now the European scholors have been attacking the Dravidian culture Vehemently. Europeans claim that Villavars, Nadalvars never existed but only Mestizo Christians existed.
Chera Dynasty was that of Villavar/Nadalvar Kings. The Cheras called themselves Villavar Kon and they were supported by Villavar subcastes such as Villavar, Malayar and Vanavar. Meenavars were the ancient subcastes of Tamil Villavar people.
The Chera Coins displayed Bow and Arrow insignia of Villavars and Palm Tree on the Obverse side. The Villavar people were involved in the cultivation and harvesting the Palm trees from time immemorial. On some Chera coins there was images resembling Pile of coconuts were seen on the reverse side.
http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?topic=19630.0
Villavar insignia Palm Tree and Bow and Arrow were seen almost all the Chera Coins.
http://www.ebay.in/itm/ANCIENT-INDIA-1005-AD-KONGU-CHERAS-BOW-PALM-TREE-COPPER-COIN-RARE-C-/260866251175
Sun, Moon, Flag Post and Elephants were inscribed too in the Chera coins.
Ummattur Chiefs, a branch of Kongu Cheras who ruled until 14th century even after the fall of Mahodayapuram Cheras issued many copper coins.
http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,19630.msg132765.html?PHPSESSID=3e1f2438d905308d1c17e619f82b87a5#msg132765
Some of the Ancient Chera Coins displayed Hill insignia of Malayar along with their official Bow and Arrow and Palm tree. Rarely Chera Coins displayed the Fish insignia of the Meenavar people.
http://poetryinstone.in/tag/malaiyaman
Kerala meant Kera = Coconut + Alam = Field
All the Villavar kings The Cheras,Pandyas and Alupas Shared Kulasekhara title.
Kula meant lineage or Bunch of Coconuts. Sekharan meant collector.
Kulasekhara might mean the collector of Coconut Bunch.
Mahabharata called the Pandyan King Saranga Dhwaja (Bow flagged king). Malaya Dhwaja (Hill flagged) Pandya was also mentioned in Mahabharatha indicating the common Villavar ancestory of the Pandyas. The Vanavar or Vanathy Rayars of the Pandyan Kingdom are subcastes of Villavars too.
Kanjirappally Madurai Meenakshi Temple has an inscription of Maveli Vanathy Rayar a Pandyan feudatory of the Pandyan dynasty who ruled over parts of Kottayam and Ramnad (1250).
http://kanjnjirappallikkaran.blogspot.in/2010/12/blog-post.html
http://www.panoramio.com/photo_explorer#view=photo&position=0&with_photo_id=44789471&order=date&user=3444508&tag=MAVELI%20SASAN
Eyinar (sharp shooters) were either a Villavar sub caste or Nagas joining the Villavar ranks giving them the title Enathy Rayar (Eyinan +Athy Rayar).
Meenavars were seagoing twin caste of Villavar people in the ancient times. Villavars mixed with Meenavars formed the aristocracy called Nadalvars who ruled over Pandyan country. Mara Nadar, Vanavar or Vanathy Rayar, Eyinar or Enathys were all considered Villavar clans. Some Villavarayars mixed with meenavars and adopted fishing.
Pandyan Chera and Chola countries were established by Villavar people much earlier than the arrival of Nagas two thousand years ago.
Kalithokai mentions about an ancient battle fought between the Dravidian Villavar and Meenavar Tamils against their enemies from the North the Nagas (1000BC).
Eventually many Naga tribes start migrating from their home north of Ganges to Central India and through Kalinga towards the Pandyan
 

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Nadar community is the Kshatriyas (rulers) from the ancient Pandiyan kingdom ( Pandya kingdom). They are Villavars belonging to the Villavar Meenavar stock who founded Pandyan and Chera kingdoms in the prehistory. Nadars or Nadalvar or Mara Nadalvar were the ancient titles of Shanars. The Dravidian Tamils believe that the origin of Pandyan kingdom started 12000 years ago.Tamil Nadu and Kerala were occupied by Muslims and Vaduga - Naga people in 1300s who united against the Tamil Kingdoms and established barbarian kingdoms in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. When the 72 Palayams plundered Tamil Nadu Kerala had Naga kingdoms who had migrated from Tulunadu with roots from Uttarpradesh. The opportunistic Portuguese supported these Barbarian kingdoms with their Christian army.
Some of the Barbarian kingdoms had Polyandry with no family structre whose kings were naked when the Portuguese arrived while some others were simply army of thieves who made Palayams-Military camp which constantly plundered the neighbouring country. The European support to the Barbarian kingdoms resulted in slavery for 450 years to most of the people with pure Dravidian origin. Dravidan Language (Tamil and Malyalam replaced by Sanskrit) culture and religeon (Jainism and Buddhism) were destroyed in Kerala. The Nagas and Aryans ruled Kerala and Tamil Nadu with European help for 450 years.Till British left India most of the Indigenous Dravidian people did not have any political power.
European researchers pretended that they are masters of Indian affairs.They know nothing about India. Most of them could not understand Indian tongues or Indian culture.Nadar community improved only after the Europeans left India in 1947. Within 10 years after the British left Tamil Nadu had a Nadar Chief minister. Nadars are not a minority people. They make upto 10 million people and 1 percent of Indian population.
What makes the Europeans and now the Americans think they are experts in Indian affairs?
Now the Americans researchers appointed by American Government come to India. They continue to write nonsense about India. They extoll the virtues of all the foreigners residing in India while trying to degrade all the indigenous Dravidian people. Americans have been trying to promote Christianity in India.
Why cant the Americans do research about the large number of European prostitutes who migrated to Americas in the 1800s and those who paid passage money to them (Ref: Thomas Michener) ?. Americans may get a clue to their own existence and social status and surnames.
 

Selected pages

Contents

INTRODUCTION
5
TRADITIONAL STRUCTURES AND MODERN POLITICS CASTE
17
Marx Modernity and Mobilization
19
The Sociology of Caste Associations
31
Horizontal Mobilization
38
The Politics of Caste
66
Fission Fusion and Decompression
90
The Social Conditions of Political Integration
105
SelfControl and Political Potency
194
ThisWorldly Asceticism and Political Modernization
218
The Private Origins of Public Obligation
242
The New Meaning of Old Paths
249
LEGAL CULTURES AND SOCIAL CHANGE PANCHAYATS PANDAITS AND PROFESSIONALS
253
Traditional and Modern Justice
256
The Modernity of Brahmanic Law
271
The Anglicization of Indian Law
281

The Test of Fellow Feeling
134
THE TRADITIONAL ROOTS OF CHARISMA GANDHI
157
The Fear of Cowardice
162
Gandhi and the New Courage
185

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About the author (1984)

Rudolph is a professor in the department of political science at the University of Chicago.

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