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accountability Administered pricing allocation and/or appropriate assets average variable cost bypass changes compete competitive access competitive market competitive pricing cross subsidies cross-subsidies customers discounts economic economies of scale efficient pricing efficient utility pricing electric utilities European example excess capacity firms fixed charges flexibility fuel grid incentives for efficient industry inefficiencies Institutional monopolies internalisation INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY least cost load loss long-run marginal cost marginal cost pricing market forces market power market price monopolist monopoly facilities monopoly utility Narvesen natural monopolies OECD countries OECD Publications open access optimal output peak/off peak pricing PRICING AND ACCESS pricing for utilities pricing scheme pricing structure privatisation producer profitable provide incentives reflect rigid pricing run marginal cost short-run marginal cost social subsidies suppliers supply and demand susceptible to competition tariffs Telea Telefaa third parties transactions transparent pricing unit pricing utility pricing practices utility rates utility services utility's