Human-System Integration in the System Development Process:: A New Look

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National Academies Press, Jun 15, 2007 - Business & Economics - 384 pages
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In April 1991 BusinessWeek ran a cover story entitled, "I Can't Work This ?#!!@ Thing," about the difficulties many people have with consumer products, such as cell phones and VCRs. More than 15 years later, the situation is much the same--but at a very different level of scale. The disconnect between people and technology has had society-wide consequences in the large-scale system accidents from major human error, such as those at Three Mile Island and in Chernobyl.

To prevent both the individually annoying and nationally significant consequences, human capabilities and needs must be considered early and throughout system design and development. One challenge for such consideration has been providing the background and data needed for the seamless integration of humans into the design process from various perspectives: human factors engineering, manpower, personnel, training, safety and health, and, in the military, habitability and survivability. This collection of development activities has come to be called human-system integration (HSI). Human-System Integration in the System Development Process reviews in detail more than 20 categories of HSI methods to provide invaluable guidance and information for system designers and developers.

  

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Contents

Introduction
9
THE PROBLEM
11
CHARGE AND SCOPE
16
THE CONTEXT
18
THEMES
23
REPORT ORGANIZATION
27
HumanSystem Integration in the Context of System Development
29
The System Development Process
31
COGNITIVE TASK ANALYSIS
161
PARTICIPATORY ANALYSIS
169
CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY
175
EVENT DATA ANALYSIS
177
Defining Requirements and Design
189
USABILITY REQUIREMENTS
191
WORK DOMAIN ANALYSIS
197
WORKLOAD ASSESSMENT
207

PRINCIPLES FOR SUCCESSFUL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
32
THE EVOLVING NATURE OF SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
33
PRINCIPLESBASED COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE PROCESS MODELS
34
THE INCREMENTAL COMMITMENT MODEL
36
VIEWS OF THE INCREMENTAL COMMITMENT MODEL
39
PROJECT EXPERIENCE WITH ICM PRINCIPLES
51
CONCLUSION
53
HumanSystem Integration and the System Development Process
55
HUMANSYSTEM INTEGRATION IN THE INCREMENTAL COMMITMENT MODEL
57
COMMUNICATING HSI ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH SHARED REPRESENTATIONS
61
CONCLUSION
66
APPENDIX 3A
67
Managing Risks
75
IDENTIFYING AND ANALYZING RISK
78
HANDLING OPTIONS ASSESSMENT
85
EXECUTING RISK MITIGATION
88
Case Studies
91
UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS
92
PORT SECURITY
97
NEXTGENERATION INTRAVENOUS INFUSION PUMP
105
HumanSystem Integration Methods in System Development
127
Defining Opportunities and Context of Use
135
ORGANIZATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
139
FIELD OBSERVATIONS AND ETHNOGRAPHY
150
PARTICIPATORY DESIGN
210
CONTEXTUAL DESIGN
216
PHYSICAL ERGONOMICS
217
SITUATION AWARENESS
223
METHODS FOR MITIGATING FATIGUE
226
SCENARIOS
230
PERSONAS
233
PROTOTYPING
235
MODELS AND SIMULATIONS
240
Methods for Evaluation
253
ANALYSIS OF HUMAN ERROR
256
USABILITY EVALUATION METHODS
265
The Future Scenarios Conclusions and Recommendations
275
Scenarios for the Future
277
AN INTEGRATED METHODOLOGY
278
KNOWLEDGEBASED PLANNING FOR HUMANSYSTEM INTEGRATION
286
USER PARTICIPATION
288
Conclusions and Recommendations
296
RESEARCH AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
301
References
331
Sponsors and Contributors
357
Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff
358
Index
365
Copyright

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Page 340 - Shadbolt, N. (1998). Use of the critical decision method to elicit expert knowledge: A case study in the methodology of cognitive task analysis.
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