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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE LARYNX
NORMAL VOICE DEVELOPMENT
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abnormal voice adduct adductor spastic dysphonia aphonia Aronson articulatory arytenoid cartilages bilateral breathy cause cleft lip cleft palate clinical clinician closure consonants contact ulcer contextual speech conversion reaction conversion voice disorders cough depression diagnosis dysarthria dystonia esophageal speech etiology examination feel female flaccid fundamental frequency glottal attack glottic hoarseness Hollien hyoid bone hyperadduction hypernasality hypernasality and nasal hyponasality infants injection laryngectomy laryngologist laryngoscopic laryngospasm lesions males motor neuron movements musculature musculoskeletal tension myasthenia gravis nasal emission neck neurologic voice disorders normal voice Number onset organic voice patient percent personality pharyngeal phonation posterior pressure problems produce psychiatric psychogenic voice disorders psychologic recurrent laryngeal nerve resonatory signs soft palate sound Speech Hear speech pathologist subglottic surgery syndrome talk throat thyroid cartilage tongue tumor velopharyngeal vocal abuse vocal cord vocal fold paralysis vocal folds vocal nodules voice arrests voice disorders voice quality voice therapy voice tremor vowel prolongation