Export Controls As Instruments of Foreign Policy: The History, Legal Issues and Policy Lessons of Three Recent Cases
Export controls have become an increasingly important foreign policy tool. The authors of this important new work focus on how the United States used export controls during the seizure of American hostages in Iran, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the declaration of martial law in Poland. They address the legal issues related to the use of export controls as well as the broader policy issues. Because export controls are often viewed as an effective middle course between military action and diplomacy, the authors foresee their increased use. Much of this book appeared, in a slightly different form, in the journal Law and Policy in International Business.
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1980 Summer Olympic accompanying text action agreement agricultural commodities amended authority boycott boycotted country Committee Cong Congress contracts Control List court Department of Commerce department or agency determines Dresser Industries economic sanctions effect embargo equipment Export Administration Act Export Administration Regulations export controls export license extraterritorial foreign availability foreign policy controls grain embargo House Afghanistan Report imposition International Trade Administration Iran Iranian January jurisdiction Kama River license application ment military multilateral National Emergencies Act national security Office of Export oil and gas Olympic paragraph period phosphate pipeline controls Poland policy set port President prior restraint procedures prohibit provisions pursuant respect restrictions revised Secretary of Defense shipment Soviet Union specific submitted Supp supra note 172 technical data tion tional transactions U.S. companies U.S. export U.S.-origin United United Kingdom United States Code validated license violation