Morphology and Innervation of the Fish Heart
Fish have adapted extremely successfully to the extremes of the aqueous environ ment, with the teleosts being outstanding in this respect. Amongst the class Pisces are pelagic species which must maintain certain swimming speeds in order to remain buoyant, species which migrate over thousands of miles, abyssal species living in waters with markedly reduced oxygen content, species living in the subzero waters of the Antarctic and also the obligatory air-breathing species of the tropics. Even in a comparatively benign environment such as the relatively shallow waters over continental shelves, the lifestyle of fish species varies greatly, with sedentary benthic and pelagic shoaling species coexisting within a comparatively narrow depth-range. Clearly, widely varying physiologi cal demands are made on species occupying such different environments and exhibiting such different lifestyles, and the successful provision of an adequate oxygen supply to the tissues is therefore of paramount importance to the fish. It follows that the demands made on the fish heart in irrigating the gill vascula ture will vary greatly according to the lifestyle and habitat of a particular species, and it is therefore surprising that authors reporting physiological, pharmacologi cal, biochemical and morphological investigations on the hearts of a consider able number of cyclostome, elasmobranch and teleost species imply that their results and conclusions can be extended to "the fish heart" in general.
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Development of the Fish Heart
Electron Microscopy of the Fish Heart
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Abrahamsson adrenergic Anat Anguilla anteriorly atrio-ventricular atrium and ventricle axons Biol bulbar bulbo-ventricular bulbus arteriosus cardiac muscle carpio catecholamines caveolae chamber collagen Comp Biochem Physiol connective tissue contraction conus arteriosus coronary arteries cyclostomes cytoplasm diameter dipnoan dorsal elasmobranch elasmobranch heart electron endothelial cells epicardium fish heart fluorescence ganglion cells gap junctions GC cells granules Greer Walker 1980 heart index heart-tube histochemical Hochachka innervation Kilarsky Leknes Lignon longitudinal lumen lungfish microscopy Midttun mitochondria morphology muscle fibres myocardium myofibrils Myxine glutinosa nerves observed outer compact layer pericardial Pleuronectes platessa plexus posterior Poupa Protopterus Saetersdal Salmo gairdneri Santer and Greer Santer RM sarcolemma sarcoplasmic reticulum sino-atrial region sino-atrial valves sinus venosus smooth muscle cells species spongiosa spongy squatina structure subepicardium systole teleost heart teleosts thynnus Tota trabeculae tuna ultrastructural unmyelinated vascular venous blood ventral aorta ventricle ventricular myocardial cells ventricular myocardium vertebrates vesicles wall whilst Yamauchi Zool