Biology of Adventitious Root Formation
Charles E. Hess Department of Environmental Horticulture University of California Davis, CA 95616 Research in the biology of adventitious root formation has a special place in science. It provides an excellent forum in which to pursue fundamental research on the regulation of plant growth and development. At the same time the results of the research have been quickly applied by commercial plant propagators, agronomists, foresters and horticulturists (see the chapter by Kovar and Kuchenbuch, by Ritchie, and by Davies and coworkers in this volume). In an era when there is great interest in speeding technology transfer, the experiences gained in research in adventitious root formation may provide useful examples for other areas of science. Interaction between the fundamental and the applied have been and continue to be facilitated by the establishment, in 1951, of the Plant Propagators' Society, which has evolved into the International Plant Propagators' Society, with active programs in six regions around the world. It is a unique organization which brings together researchers in universities, botanical gardens and arboreta, and commercial plant propagators. In this synergistic environment new knowledge is rapidly transferred and new ideas for fundamental research evolve from the presentations and discussions by experienced plant propagators. In the past 50 years, based on research related to the biology of adventitious root formation, advances in plant propagation have been made on two major fronts.
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The Origin Diversity and Biology of ShootBorne Roots
THE COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE OF ADVENTITIOUS ROOTING
Commercial Application of Adventitious Rooting to Forestry
Commercial Importance of Adventitious Rooting to Horticulture
Genomic Manipulation of Plant Materials for Adventitious Rooting Research
Model Systems for Studying Adventitious Root Formation
Novel Experimental Systems for Determining Cellular Competence
Differential Competence for Adventitious Root Formation in Histologically
Structural and Physiological Analyses
Use of Transformed Roots for Root Development and Metabolism Studies
Control of Root System Architecture through Chemical and Genetic Alterations
Modeling Root System Morphology in Rice
The Role of Expert and Hypertext Systems in Modeling RootShoot Interactions
Carbon Allocation to Root and Shoot Systems of Woody Plants
A Historical Evaluation of Adventitious Rooting Research to 1993
Biochemical and Molecular Markers of Cellular Competence
Manipulating Rooting Potential in Stockplants before Collecting Cuttings
Auxin Metabolism and Adventitious Root Initiation
Where Do We Go from Here?
acid adventitious root formation Agrobacterium rhizogenes allocation anatomical anthocyanin auxin biochemical Biology of Adventitious biomass buds carbohydrate clonal clones competence control of adventitious coworkers cytokinins determination developmental differentiation effects endogenous environmental enzyme example experiments expert system explants expression factors Forest genes genetic genotypes gibberellins hairy root hardwood cuttings hormones Hortic hypertext hypothesis increase indole-3-acetic acid induced Isebrands juvenile knowledge lateral root leaf levels maize mature mature-phase meristem metabolism molecular morphogenesis nutrient organ organogenesis petioles phenotype phloem physiological Plant Cell plant growth Plant Physiol plant propagation polyamines poplar Populus production promoter propagation protein regeneration response rhizocaline role root and shoot root cultures root development root growth root length density root primordia root system root-shoot rooted cuttings rooting of cuttings rooting potential rootstock seedlings shoot-borne roots soil species stem stock plants stress studies substances T-DNA TCLs Tepfer tissue tree types vascular vitro woody plants