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INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING Art 1 Surveying
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adjustment altitude angular error azimuth backsight and foresight bench marks boundaries bubble calculated celestial equator celestial sphere clamped closed traverse compass computed correction cross-hair cross-section cut or fill declination deflection angles described in Art determined difference in elevation direction dumpy level employed ephemeris equator error of closure established feet figure foresight distances given grade rod graduated Greenwich ground head chainman hence horizontal angles horizontal axis hour angle instrument latitudes and departures length level tube line of sight longitude magnetic bearings mean method needle observed offset parallel perpendicular plane planimeter plate plotted plumb-bob Polaris pole position precision profile levels protractor refraction right ascension rod reading rotated scale side slope stake solar star surveyor surveys tangent screw tape telescope tion transit is set transit lines transit stations triangle turning points upper usually values vernal equinox vernier vertical angles vertical axis vertical circle zero