Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia, Volume 1 (Google eBook)

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Junius P. Rodriguez
ABC-CLIO, Jan 1, 2007 - History - 793 pages
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For 250 years, slavery was part of the fabric of American life. The institution had an enormous economic impact and was central to the wealth of the agrarian South. It had as great an impact on American culture, cementing racism and other attitudes that echo into the present. This encyclopedia is an ambitious examination of all the issues surrounding slavery: the origins, the justifications, the controversies, and the human drama.

These volumes represent the work of 75 distinguished scholars from around the world. Ten thematic essays present a thorough examination of slavery and slave culture, including a rare treatment of slavery from the slave's point of view. Three hundred A-Z entries provide instant access to specific people, issues, and events. Today, slavery's immorality seems obvious. This encyclopedia provides the student or general reader with an in-depth explanation of how the practice evolved and was normalized, then anathematized and abolished.

  

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Contents

Chronology of Slavery in the United States
1
Contextual Essays
77
Early American Slavery in the Colonies and the Hardening of Racial Distinctions
84
Revolutionary Ideology Citizenship and Slavery
92
The End of the Slave Trade and the Rise of Abolitionism
99
The Rise of King Cotton and the Economics of Slavery
107
Slavery Paternalism and Antebellum Southern Culture
114
African American Culture and Strategies for Survival
121
BrooksSumner Affair 201
201
John Mifflin Brown 18171893 207
207
Anthony Burns c 18301862 211
211
Elizabeth Buffum Chace 18061899 218
218
Civil War 18611865 224
224
CodeNoir 230
230
Recent Developments 236
236
Contrabands 242
242

Slavery and the Growth of Sectional Conflict
128
The Coming of the War and Emancipation
136
Are Liberty and Justice for All?
143
Entries
151
Alabama Platform
157
American Colonization Society
163
Susan Brownell Anthony 18201906
169
Artisans
176
Crispus Attucks c 17231770
182
James G Birney 17921857
188
Blair Education Bill
195
BrooksSumner Affair
201
John Mifflin Brown 18171893
207
Anthony Burns c 18301862
211
Elizabeth Buffum Chace 18061899
218
Civil War 18611865
224
CodeNoir
230
Recent Developments
236
Contrabands
242
Crittenden Compromise
248
Thomas Roderick Dew 18021846
254
Diseases and African Slavery in the New World
257
Frederick Douglass c 18171895
264
Andrew Durnford 18001859
270
The Emancipator
276
Filibusters
282
Eliza Lee Cabot Follen 17871860
288
Free African Society
294
Freeport Doctrine
300
Fugitive Slave Act 1850
301
Thomas Garrett 17891871
307
Georgia Code 1861
314
Angelina Grimké 18051879
321
Harpers Ferry Raid 1859
327
Hinton Rowan Helper 18291909
333
Hiring of Slaves
339
Illegal Slave Trade
342
Immediatism
343
Harriet Ann Jacobs 18131897
348
John Jasper 18121901
349
George Washington Julian 18171899
354
Juneteenth
355
Knights of the Golden Circle
360
L
362
Liberia
367
Abraham Lincoln 18091865
368
David Ross Locke 18331888
374
Madison County Slave War
380
Margaret Mercer 17911846
381
Lucretia Coffin Mott 17931880
388
Volume
iii
List of Contributors xix
xix
Lucretia Coffin Mott 17931880 387
387
Negro Convention Movement 18301854 400
400
James W Pennington 18091870 413
413
Nullification Doctrine 405
416
Popular Sovereignty 419
419
Proslavery Argument 425
425
Rice Cultivation and Trade 437
437
Sea Islands 443
443
William Gilmore Simms 18061870
449
1619
451
Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes Woolman
457
Maria W Stewart 18031879
463
Thornton Stringfellow 17881869
469
36ş30 North Latitude
475
Sojourner Truth c 17971883
481
Underground Railroad
487
Denmark Vesey 17671822
494
Wage Slavery
500
Warof1812
506
Phillis Wheatley c 17531784
512
Women and the Antislavery Movement 18321870
518
Benjamin Franklins Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind
527
John Locke Prepares a Constitution for Carolina 1669
532
Code Noir of Louisiana 1724
541
Argument for Slavery in Georgia 1743
547
Defense of Colonial Slavery in Virginia 1757
551
Slaves Petition for Freedom During the Revolution 1773
553
Lord Dunmores Proclamation 1775
554
Vermont Abolishes Slavery 1777
555
Commonwealth v Jennison 1783
558
Preamble of the Free African Society 1787
559
The Fugitive Slave Act 1793
560
The Formation of a Black Congregation in Philadelphia 1794
561
Thomas Jefferson on Race and Slavery 1801
562
Fear That St Domingo Might Influence American Slaves 1804
566
A Kentucky Slave Code 1811
567
Paul Cuffee Visits Sierra Leone 1811
568
Memorial to the Congress from the American Colonization Society 1820
569
Prospectus of The Emancipator 1820
571
Fugitives Follow the North Star to Escape c 1820
572
Charles Ball Describes the Provisions Granted Slaves c 1820
574
Description of Denmark Vesey 1822
575
Constitution of the Manumission Society of North Carolina 1824
576
Quaker Attitudes Toward Slavery 1824
577
Fears About Pending Emancipation of Slaves in Texas 1826
578
Freedoms Journal Editorial 1827
579
Freedom for an African Prince 1828
580
David Walker Addresses Free Persons of Color 1828
581
Key Arguments from David Walkers Appeal 1829
583
Address to the Free People of Colour of These United States 1830
586
The Liberator 1831
587
William Lloyd Garrison Comments on Walkers Appeal 1831
588
From Nat Turners Confession 1831
589
Conditions of Free Blacks in Pennsylvania 1832
596
Frederick Douglass Describes Slave Resistance 1834
597
The Gag Resolutions 1836
599
A Slave Maroon Is Killed 1837
601
Wendell Phillips Eulogizes Elijah P Lovejoy 1837
602
AntiSlavery Advocates Endorse Additional Reforms 1837
605
ProSlavery Mob Attacks Abolitionist Meeting at Pennsylvania Hall 1838
607
The Plight of the Amistad Captives 1839
610
Excessive Punishment of Slaves 1839
611
Slaves Executed for Killing Overseer 1841
612
Rumors of Revolt 1841
613
Advertisements for Fugitive Slaves 1841
614
Observations on the Education of Slaves 1841
616
The Case of Margaret Garner 1856
655
Beechers Bibles Are Sent to Kansas 1856
656
Editorial Responses to the BrooksSumner Affair 1856
657
The FreeLabour Produce Movement 1857
660
Dred Scott Decision 1857
661
Editorial Response to the Dred Scott Decision 1857
662
Description of Gang Labor on a Kentucky Plantation 1857
664
George Fitzhugh Views Slavery a Condition of Nature 1857
665
James Henry Hammonds MudSill Theory 1858
666
Abraham Lincolns House Divided Speech 1858
667
Observations on Health Care of Slaves 1858
670
Vermont Personal Liberty Law 1858
671
Southern Editorial Response to the Harpers Ferry Raid 1859
672
John Browns Last Speech 1859
673
A Virginian Chastises Northern Abolitionists 1859
674
Editorial upon John Browns Hanging 1859
675
A Southerner Defends the Expansion of Slavery 1860
676
On the Immorality of Slavery 1860
677
Illegal Importation of Africans as Slaves 1860
678
ProSecession Editorial 1860
681
Hinton Rowan Helper Appeals to White Southerners 1860
682
Sexual Exploitation of Female Slaves 1860
684
Booker T Washington Describes the Slaves Living Conditions c 1860
685
Frémonts Proclamation of Emancipation 1861
687
Lincolns Plan for Compensated Emancipation 1862
688
Emancipation of Slaves in Washington D C 1862
689
Lincoln Responds to David Hunters Proclamation 1862
690
Punishment of a Slave Trader 1862
691
The Prayer of Twenty Millions 1862
692
Lincolns Response to Horace Greeley 1862
694
Jefferson Davis Proclamation Regarding Black Troops 1862
695
Emancipation Proclamation 1863
696
The Confederate Congress Reacts to Black Troops 1863
697
The Human Toll of Slavery 1863
698
National Freedmens Relief Association Guidelines 1864
699
The WadeDavis Manifesto 1864
700
Forty Acres and a Mule 1865
701
Editorial Opposing Black Laws 1865
702
Freedmens Bureau Act 1865
703
Martin R Delany Offers Advice to Freedmen 1865
704
Maintaining Order Among Freedmen 1865
705
Civil War Amendments 1865 1868 1870
706
Educational Opportunities for Freedmen 1866
707
First Civil Rights Act 1866
708
Editorial Supporting the Civil Rights Bill 1866
710
Cautious Advice to Freedmen 1866
711
Insecurity of Freedmen 1866
712
The Conditions of the Freedmen 1866
713
First Reconstruction Act 1867
714
Second Reconstruction Act 1867
715
Third Reconstruction Act 1867
717
Successful Experiments with Land Ownership 1867
719
The Freedmens Bureau Report 1870 720
xx
American Colonization Society 163
163
Susan Brownell Anthony 18201906 169
169
Artisans 176
176
Crispus Attucks c 17231770 182
182
James G Birney 17921857 188
188
Blair Education Bill 195
195
Crittenden Compromise 248
248
Thomas Roderick Dew 18021846 254
254
Diseases and African Slavery in the New World 257
257
Frederick Douglass c 18171895 264
264
Andrew Durnford 18001859 270
270
The Emancipator 276
276
Filibusters 282
282
Eliza Lee Cabot Follen 17871860 288
288
Free African Society 294
294
Freeport Doctrine 300
300
Fugitive Slave Act 1850 301
301
Thomas Garrett 17891871 307
307
Georgia Code 1861 314
314
Angelina Grimké 18051879 321
321
Harpers Ferry Raid 1859 327
327
Hinton Rowan Helper 18291909 333
333
Hiring of Slaves 339
339
Immediatism 343
343
John Jasper 18121901 349
349
Juneteenth 355
355
L
362
Abraham Lincoln 18091865 368
368
David Ross Locke 18331888 374
374
Margaret Mercer 17911846 381
381
Lucretia Coffin Mott 17931880 387
388
Volume
iii
List of Contributors xix
xix
Negro Convention Movement 18301854 400
400
Abraham Lincoln 18091865 368
403
James W Pennington 18091870 413
413
Priggv Pennsylvania 1842 617
414
Popular Sovereignty 419
419
Proslavery Argument 425
425
Rice Cultivation and Trade 437
437
Sea Islands 443
443
William Gilmore Simms 18061870 449
449
450
451
Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes Woolman 457
457
Maria W Stewart 18031879 463
463
Thornton Stringfellow 17881869 469
469
36ş30 North Latitude 475
475
Sojourner Truth c 17971883 481
481
Underground Railroad 487
487
James G Birney 17921857 188
522
Benjamin Franklins Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind
527
Peopling of Countries Etc 1751 547
547
Defense of Colonial Slavery in Virginia 1757 551
551
Slaves Petition for Freedom During the Revolution 1773 553
553
Lord Dunmores Proclamation 1775 554
554
Vermont Abolishes Slavery 1777 555
555
Commonwealth v Jennison 1783 558
558
Preamble of the Free African Society 1787 559
559
The Fugitive Slave Act 1793 560
560
The Formation of a Black Congregation in Philadelphia 1794 561
561
Thomas Jefferson on Race and Slavery 1801 562
562
Fear That St Domingo Might Influence American Slaves 1804 566
566
A Kentucky Slave Code 1811 567
567
Paul Cuffee Visits Sierra Leone 1811 568
568
Memorial to the Congress from the American Colonization Society 1820 569
569
Prospectus of The Emancipator 1820 571
571
Fugitives Follow the North Star to Escape c 1820 572
572
Charles Ball Describes the Provisions Granted Slaves c 1820 574
574
Description of Denmark Vesey 1822 575
575
Constitution of the Manumission Society of North Carolina 1824 576
576
Quaker Attitudes Toward Slavery 1824 577
577
Fears About Pending Emancipation of Slaves in Texas 1826 578
578
Freedoms Journal Editorial 1827 579
579
Freedom for an African Prince 1828 580
580
David Walker Addresses Free Persons of Color 1828 581
581
Key Arguments from David Walkers Appeal 1829 583
583
Address to the Free People of Colour of These United States 1830 586
586
The Liberator 1831 587
587
William Lloyd Garrison Comments on Walkers Appeal 1831 588
588
From Nat Turners Confession 1831 589
589
Conditions of Free Blacks in Pennsylvania 1832 596
596
Frederick Douglass Describes Slave Resistance 1834 597
597
The Gag Resolutions 1836 599
599
A Slave Maroon Is Killed 1837 601
601
Wendell Phillips Eulogizes Elijah P Lovejoy 1837 602
602
AntiSlavery Advocates Endorse Additional Reforms 1837 605
605
ProSlavery Mob Attacks Abolitionist Meeting at Pennsylvania Hall 1838 607
607
The Plight of the Amistad Captives 1839 610
610
Excessive Punishment of Slaves 1839 611
611
Slaves Executed for Killing Overseer 1841 612
612
Rumors of Revolt 1841 613
613
Advertisements for Fugitive Slaves 1841 614
614
Observations on the Education of Slaves 1841 616
616
Priggv Pennsylvania 1842 617
617
An Account of Slave Suicide 1843 618
618
Editorial Supporting Manumission 1844 619
619
A Plea for Tolerance 1844 620
620
A Former Slave Describes Punishment Methods 1845 621
621
Frederick Douglass Describes His Life in Slavery 1845 622
622
The North Star Editorial 1847 624
624
Abraham Lincolns Spot Resolutions 1847 625
625
Jones v Van Zandt 1847 626
626
The Runaway Slave at Pilgrims Point 1848 627
627
Calhouns Exposition on the Southern Ethos 1849 630
630
Henry Bibb Describes Slave Superstition and Conjuring 1849 632
632
Sewards Higher Law Speech 1850 634
634
Fugitive Slave Act 1850 636
636
Typical Work Practices of Slave Laborers 1850 639
639
Southern Enthusiasm for the Fugitive Slave Act 1851 640
640
Extract of a Letter from John G Whittier to Joseph Sturge Dated Amesbury Jan 7 1851 on the Fugitive Slave Law of the United States 641
641
Elizas Dramatic Escape from Uncle Toms Cabin 1852 643
643
Abolitionist Criticism of Uncle Toms Cabin 1852 649
649
Free Soil Party Platform of Principles 1852 650
650
Slave Kinship Networks 1852 651
651
Harriet Beecher Stowe Writes to William Lloyd Garrison 1853 652
652
The Role of the Overseer 1853 653
653
The Fugitive Slave as a Heroic Figure 1855 654
654
The Case of Margaret Garner 1856 655
655
Beechers Bibles Are Sent to Kansas 1856 656
656
Editorial Responses to the BrooksSumner Affair 1856 657
657
The FreeLabour Produce Movement 1857 660
660
Dred Scott Decision 1857 661
661
Editorial Response to the Dred Scott Decision 1857 662
662
Description of Gang Labor on a Kentucky Plantation 1857 664
664
George Fitzhugh Views Slavery a Condition of Nature 1857 665
665
James Henry Hammonds MudSill Theory 1858 666
666
Abraham Lincolns House Divided Speech 1858 667
667
Observations on Health Care of Slaves 1858 670
670
Vermont Personal Liberty Law 1858 671
671
Southern Editorial Response to the Harpers Ferry Raid 1859 672
672
John Browns Last Speech 1859 673
673
A Virginian Chastises Northern Abolitionists 1859 674
674
Editorial upon John Browns Hanging 1859 675
675
A Southerner Defends the Expansion of Slavery 1860 676
676
On the Immorality of Slavery 1860 677
677
Illegal Importation of Africans as Slaves 1860 678
678
ProSecession Editorial 1860 681
681
Hinton Rowan Helper Appeals to White Southerners 1860 682
682
Sexual Exploitation of Female Slaves 1860 684
684
Booker T Washington Describes the Slaves Living Conditions c 1860 685
685
Frémonts Proclamation of Emancipation 1861 687
687
Lincolns Plan for Compensated Emancipation 1862 688
688
Emancipation of Slaves in Washington D C 1862 689
689
Lincoln Responds to David Hunters Proclamation 1862 690
690
Punishment of a Slave Trader 1862 691
691
The Prayer of Twenty Millions 1862 692
692
Lincolns Response to Horace Greeley 1862 694
694
Jefferson Davis Proclamation Regarding Black Troops 1862 695
695
Emancipation Proclamation 1863 696
696
The Confederate Congress Reacts to Black Troops 1863 697
697
The Human Toll of Slavery 1863 698
698
National Freedmens Relief Association Guidelines 1864 699
699
The WadeDavis Manifesto 1864 700
700
Forty Acres and a Mule 1865 701
701
Editorial Opposing Black Laws 1865 702
702
Freedmens Bureau Act 1865 703
703
Martin R Delany Offers Advice to Freedmen 1865 704
704
Maintaining Order Among Freedmen 1865 705
705
Civil War Amendments 1865 1868 1870 706
706
Educational Opportunities for Freedmen 1866 707
707
First Civil Rights Act 1866 708
708
Editorial Supporting the Civil Rights Bill 1866 710
710
Cautious Advice to Freedmen 1866 711
711
Insecurity of Freedmen 1866 712
712
The Conditions of the Freedmen 1866 713
713
First Reconstruction Act 1867 714
714
Second Reconstruction Act 1867 715
715
Third Reconstruction Act 1867 717
717
Successful Experiments with Land Ownership 1867 719
719
Merits of Abolition 1871 720
720
Second Civil Rights Act 1875 722
722
Obituary for William Lloyd Garrison 1879 723
723
Bibliography 727
727
Index I1
741
Black Belt 190
746
HayneWebster Debate 1830 331
751
Disquisition on Government Calhoun 256
753
Hinton Rowan Helper 18291909 333
763
LongStaple Cotton 375
768
Henry Box Brown c 18151878 204
772
John Brown 18001859 205
784
Copyright

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About the author (2007)

JUNIUS P. RODRIGUEZ is Associate Professor of History at Eureka College. He specializes in African-American history and has done extensive research on slave revolts. He is general editor of the award-winning Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1997) and of Chronology of World Slavery (1999). He was also the 1997 recipient of the Helen Cleaver Distinguished Teaching Award.