Scientific Discovery Processes in Humans and Computers: Theory and Research in Psychology and Artificial Intelligence
Wagman offers a critical analysis of current theory and research in the psychological and computational sciences, directed toward the elucidation of scientific discovery processes and structures. It discusses human scientific discovery processes, analyzes computer scientific discovery processes, and makes a comparative evaluation of the two. This work examines the scientific reasoning of the discoverers of the inhibition mechanism of gene control; scientific discovery heuristics used at different developmental levels; artificial intelligence and mathematical discovery; the ECHO system; the evolution of artificial intelligence discovery systems; the PAULI system; and the KEKADA system. It concludes with an examination of the extent to which computational discovery systems can emulate a set of 10 types of scientific problems.
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COMPUTER SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY
Explanatory Systems and Scientific Discovery Processes
The Evolution of Scientific Discovery Systems
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activation hypothesis activation-only AM's analogous artificial intelligence BACON BACON.3 baryon Black's law chromosome Cognitive Science coli computational concepts conservation laws constraints creative operators current hypothesis DENDRAL diploid discover discovery systems Dunbar ECHO empirical discovery EURISKO evaluate example experiment space explanatory coherence FAHRENHEIT following section functional transformation genes genetic given goal haploid heuristics ideal gas law inconsistent evidence independent terms induction inhibitor initial involved italics added KEKADA Kepler Kepler's third law Klahr Krebs lactose Langley & Zytkow Langley and Zytkow large output Lenat machine discovery mathematical mechanism methods molecular Monod and Jacob mutants natural selection observed output of P-gal P-gal production particle physics PAULI phlogiston phlogiston theory plausible problem solving produce proposed proposition quantum numbers reactions relations scientific discovery processes scientific reasoning Selector Shen specific strategies Study subjects task temperature Thagard theoretical terms third graders types Valdes-Perez values variables