The Other Rebellion: Popular Violence, Ideology, and the Mexican Struggle for Independence, 1810-1821
Mexico’s movement toward independence from Spain was a key episode in the dissolution of the great Spanish Empire, and its accompanying armed conflict arguably the first great war of decolonization in the nineteenth century. This book argues that in addition to being a war of national liberation, the struggle was also an internal war pitting classes and ethnic groups against each other, an intensely localized struggle by rural people, especially Indians, for the preservation of their communities.
While local and national elites focused their energies on wresting power from colonial authorities and building a new nation-state, rural people were often much more concerned about keeping village identities and lifeways intact against the forces of state expansion, commercialization, and modernization. Conventional wisdom says that Mexican independence was achieved through a cross-class and cross-ethnic alliance between creole ideologues, military leaders, and a mass following. This book shows that this is not only an incomplete explanation of what went on in Mexico during the decade of armed confrontation that led to Mexico’s independence, but also a distortion of Mexican social and cultural history.
The author delves deeply into life histories, previously unexamined texts, statistical social profiling, and local historical ethnography to examine the dynamics of popular rebellion. He focuses especially on Mexico’s Indian villages, but also considers the role of parish priests as insurgent leaders; local conflicts over land, politics, and religious symbols; the influence of messianism and millenarianism in popular insurgent ideology; and the everyday language of political upheaval.
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A Social Profile
4AB Occupational Breakdown of Insurgents Aggregated
10A Judicial Sentences of Accused Insurgents
17A Insurgents by Ethnicity and Nature of Judicial Sentence
Hard Times and Rebellion
Love Suggestibility Curiosity Pressment
Rituals of Confession and Pardon
Priest and Parish
Loyalist Curates and Warrior Priests
The Social Construction of Priestly Subversion and Rebellion
Four Clerical Cabecillas
Loose Talk Rumor
The Origins of Local Conflict
The Dynamics of Local Political
Masked Messiahs and Truncated Utopias
The Other Rebellion in Comparative Perspective
App A l Number of Captured Rebels and Percentage of Cases by Year
accused activity alcalde Allende amnesty Atlacomulco authorities cabecillas Calleja capital captured Chapter chieftain Chito Villagran church claimed clerics collective action colonial regime confession conflict Correa countryside creole Cruz Cuautla Cuernavaca cultural curate Diaz district early economic episodes ethnic European Spaniards evidence example Father Ferdinand VII gachupines gent gobernador Gonzalez Guadalajara Guadalupe hacienda Huichapan Ibarra ideological Ignacio Ignacio Allende incident Indian indigenous villagers insurrection involved jail Jose Maria Juan labor Lake Chapala land late colonial leadership least legitimacy letter loyalty Magdaleno Diez maize Malinalco Manuel Mariano messianic mestizo Mexican Mexico City Miguel Hidalgo military Morelos motives native notables officials parish parishioners peasant Pedro percent period political popular insurgency population priest pueblo rebel rebellion religious riot role royalist royalist commander royalist forces rumors rural sacked sedition social sort Spain Spanish subdelegado tion Toluca town Tulancingo Uraga Valladolid viceregal Viceroy Venegas violence Virgin of Guadalupe