An Introduction to Radio Astronomy

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Cambridge University Press, 2010 - Nature - 444 pages
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Written by two prominent figures in radio astronomy, this well-established, graduate-level textbook is a thorough and up-to-date introduction to radio telescopes and techniques. It is an invaluable overview for students and researchers turning to radio astronomy for the first time. The first half of the book describes how radio telescopes work - from basic antennas and single aperture dishes through to full aperture-synthesis arrays. It includes reference material on the fundamentals of astrophysics and observing techniques. The second half of the book reviews radio observations of our galaxy, stars, pulsars, radio galaxies, quasars, and the cosmic microwave background. This third edition describes the applications of fundamental techniques to newly developing radio telescopes, including ATA, LOFAR, MWA, SKA, and ALMA, which all require an understanding of aspects specific to radio astronomy. Two entirely new chapters now cover cosmology, from the fundamental concepts to the most recent results of WMAP.
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 Thermal and nonthermal processes
3
13 Radiation processes and radio observations
5
The nature of the radio signal
7
22 Antenna temperature
10
23 Electromagnetic waves
15
24 Wave polarization
18
25 Stokes parameters
20
101 The circular approximation
202
102 Spiral structure
206
103 Noncircular motions
211
104 The Galactic centre
216
105 The scale of the Galaxy
221
Stars
224
112 The Sun
227
113 The planets
231

26 Radio polarimetry in practice
22
Signals noise radiometers and spectrometers
24
32 Bandlimited noise
26
33 Detection and integration
28
34 Radiometer principles
30
35 Lownoise amplifiers and mixers
33
36 Radiometers in practice
34
37 Digital techniques
38
38 Spectrometry
39
interferometry
42
Singleaperture radio telescopes
44
42 Arrays of radiating elements
50
43 Frequencyindependent antennas
53
44 Aperture distributions and beam patterns
54
45 Partially steerable telescopes
59
46 Steerable telescopes
60
47 Feed systems
62
48 Focalplane arrays
63
49 Surface accuracy and efficiency
65
410 Radio telescopes today
67
411 Smoothing the response to a sky brightness distribution
70
The twoelement interferometer
73
51 The basic twoelement interferometer
74
52 Interferometers with finite bandwidth
78
53 Interferometers and finite source size
80
54 Fourier transforms and the u vplane
82
55 Practical considerations
84
56 Verylongbaseline interferometry VLBI
86
57 Beam switching
90
59 Interferometry at millimetre wavelengths
92
510 Optical interferometry
93
Aperture synthesis
96
62 Crosspower products in an array
99
63 Calibration
109
65 Producing a map
111
66 Selfcalibration
113
67 Frequency diversity
114
68 Wide fields and wide bandwidths
115
mosaicing
117
611 VLBI arrays
120
612 Space VLBI
121
613 Aperture synthesis at millimetre wavelengths
122
Radiation propagation and absorption of radio waves
124
71 Radiative transfer
125
72 Synchrotron radiation
127
73 A powerlaw energy distribution
130
74 Synchrotron selfabsorption
133
76 Radio spectral lines
136
77 Masers
138
78 Propagation through ionized gas
140
79 Faraday rotation
141
710 Scintillation
143
711 Propagation in the Earths atmosphere
145
The local Universe
148
82 Aspects of the Milky Way
151
83 Measurement of sky brightness temperature
153
84 The spectrum of the Galactic continuum
156
emissivity
158
86 The energy spectrum of cosmic rays
160
87 Polarization
162
89 Loops and spurs
169
810 The Local Bubble
171
811 Other galaxies
172
The interstellar medium
174
92 Kinetic radiation and state temperatures
181
93 The 21cm spectral line of neutral hydrogen
183
94 H II regions and supernova remnants
187
95 Heating and cooling mechanisms
189
96 Dense molecular clouds
191
97 Interstellar scintillation
192
98 Supernova remnants SNRs
193
Galactic dynamics
201
114 Circumstellar envelopes
234
115 Circumstellar masers
235
117 The water masers
236
118 The hydroxyl masers
237
119 Classical novae
238
1110 Recurrent novae
243
1111 Nonthermal radiation from binaries and flare stars
245
1112 Xray binaries Cyg X3 and SS 433
246
1113 Superluminal motion
248
Pulsars
253
121 Neutronstar structure
254
122 Rotational slowdown
256
123 Rotational behaviour of the Crab and Vela pulsars
257
124 Glitches in rotation rate
260
125 Superfluid rotation
261
126 Radio and optical emission from pulsars
262
127 The radiation mechanism and refraction
269
128 The population and evolution of pulsars
270
129 Searches and surveys the constraints
273
1210 Trigonometric distance and proper motion
277
1212 Binary radio pulsars
278
1213 Magnetic dipole moments
280
1215 Binary orbits and interactions
282
1216 Tests of general relativity
284
Radio galaxies and quasars
287
131 Radio emission from normal galaxies
288
132 Spectra and dimensions
290
133 Structures
293
134 A simple model of active galactic nuclei
297
135 The accretion disc
300
137 The core and the jets
302
138 Spectra of quasars and other AGNs
304
139 The radio brightness temperature of the core
305
1310 Superluminal motion
307
1311 The radio jets and lobes
309
1312 The kiloparsecscale radio sources
311
1313 Repeating and quiescent quasars
313
Cosmology fundamentals
317
141 Cosmology transformed
318
142 Observing the CMB
321
143 Relativistic cosmology
324
144 Connecting GR cosmology with observations
329
145 The early Universe
336
146 Isotropy curvature and inflation
338
The angular structure of the CMB
340
the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Mission
341
153 Baryons and cold dark matter
348
154 The geometry of the acoustic oscillations
351
155 Physics of the acoustic oscillations
354
156 Deriving the cosmological parameters
355
Cosmology discrete radio sources and gravitational lensing
360
162 Angular diameter and expansion velocity
366
163 Gravitational lensing
367
rings quads and others
374
165 Time delay
378
166 Weak gravitational imaging
380
167 Microlensing
381
The future of radio astronomy
383
172 The cosmic microwave background
384
173 The interstellar medium
385
stars and quasars
386
175 Optical and infrared interferometry
387
176 New large radio telescopes
388
177 The protection of radio frequencies in astronomy
393
Fourier transforms
397
Celestial coordinates distance and time
405
The origins of radio astronomy
412
Calibrating polarimeters
421
References
425
Index
437
Copyright

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About the author (2010)

Bernard F. Burke is William A. M. Burden Professor of Astrophysics, Emeritus in the Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was the co-discoverer of radio noise from Jupiter, and he was later involved in the development of very-long-baseline interferometry. He has been a Visiting Professor at the University of Leiden and the University of Manchester, is a member of the National Academy of Science, and is on the governing board of the National Science Foundation.

F. Graham-Smith is an Emeritus Professor at the Jodrell Bank Observatory, University of Manchester. He has been Director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory and President of the Royal Astronomical Society, and was the 13th Astronomer Royal. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society, and researches in many fields of radio astronomy, particularly pulsars.

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