Model-Based Reasoning: Science, Technology, Values

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L. Magnani, Nancy J. Nersessian
Springer Science & Business Media, May 31, 2002 - Computers - 404 pages
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The volume is based on the papers that were presented at the Interna tional Conference Model-Based Reasoning: Scientific Discovery, Technologi calInnovation, Values (MBR'01), held at the CoUegio Ghislieri, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy, in May 2001. The previous volume Model-Based Rea soning in Scientific Discovery, edited by L. Magnani, N.J. Nersessian, and P. Thagard (Kluwer AcademiclPlenum Publishers, New York, 1999; Chinese edition, China Science and Technology Press, Beijing, 2000), was based on the papers presented at the first "model-based reasoning" international con ference, held at the same place in December 1998. The papers explore how scientific thinking uses models and explanatory reasoning to produce creative changes in theories and concepts. Some address the problem of model-based reasoning in ethics, especially pertaining to sci ence and technology, and stress some aspects of model-based reasoning in technological innovation. The study of diagnostic, visual, spatial, analogical, and temporal reasoning has demonstrated that there are many ways of performing intelligent and crea tive reasoning that cannot be described with the help only of traditional no tions of reasoning such as classical logic. Understanding the contribution of modeling practices to discovery and conceptual change in science requires expanding scientific reasoning to include complex forms of creative reasoning that are not always successful and can lead to incorrect solutions. The study of these heuristic ways of reasoning is situated at the crossroads of philosophy, artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, and logic; that is, at the heart of cognitive science.
  

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Contents

MetaphorBased Values in Scientific Models
1
The Case of Johannes Kepler
21
Model Experiments and Models in Experiments
41
Models Simulations and Experiments
59
Calibration of Models in Experiments
75
The Development of Scientific Taxonomies
95
Production Science and Epistemology An Overview on New Models and Scenarios
113
Modeling Practices and Tradition
127
Models as Parts of Distributed Cognitive Systems
227
Conceptual Models Inquiry and the Problem of Deriving Normative Claims from a Naturalistic Base
243
A Computational Model of Motion and Visual Analogy
259
ModelBased Reasoning and Similarity in the World
275
Michael Faradays Search for the Optical Effects of Gold
287
Epistemic Mediators and ModelBased Discovery in Science
305
Deterministic Models and the Unimportance of the Inevitable
331
Mental Models in Conceptual Development
353

Analogies in Neural Networks Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms
147
Perceptual Simulation in Analogical Problem Solving
167
Building Demand Models to Improve Environmental Policy Process
191
Toward a Computational Model of Hypothesis Formation and Model Building in Science
209
Modeling Core Knowledge and Practices in a Computational Approach to Innovation Process
369
Author Index
391
Subject Index
399
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