## Radiation Detection and MeasurementThis is the resource that engineers turn to in the study of radiation detection. The fourth edition takes into account the technical developments that continue to enhance the instruments and techniques available for the detection and spectroscopy of ionizing radiation. New coverage is presented on ROC curves, micropattern gas detectors, new sensors for scintillation light, and the excess noise factor. Revised discussions are also included on TLDs and cryogenic spectrometers, radiation backgrounds, and the VME standard. Engineers will gain a strong understanding of the field with this updated book. |

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This book is very complete but also very poorly written. Not easy to understand or friendly to use.

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This is a very nice book in experimental nuclear physics.

### Contents

Radiation Sources 1 | 1 |

Units and Definitions 2 | 2 |

Fast Electron Sources 3 | 3 |

1 Some Pure BetaMinus Sources 4 | 4 |

Heavy Charged Particle Sources 6 | 6 |

Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation 10 | 10 |

4 Some Radioisotope Sources of LowEnergy XRays 16 | 16 |

Neutron Sources 19 | 19 |

Ancillary Equipment Required with Photomultiplier Tubes | 294 |

Photodiodes as Substitutes for Photomultiplier Tubes | 297 |

Scintillation Pulse Shape Analysis | 308 |

Hybrid Photomultiplier Tubes | 312 |

PositionSensing Photomultiplier Tubes | 315 |

Photoionization Detectors | 317 |

Radiation Spectroscopy with Scintillators | 321 |

GammaRay Interactions | 322 |

1 | 22 |

7 Alternativea n Isotopic Neutron Sources 23 | 23 |

Radiation Interactions | 29 |

Interaction of Heavy Charged Particles | 30 |

Interaction of Fast Electrons | 42 |

Interaction of Gamma Rays | 47 |

Interaction of Neutrons | 53 |

Radiation Exposure and Dose | 56 |

1 Exposure Rate Constant for Some Common Radioisotope GammaRay Sources | 57 |

Counting Statistics and Error Prediction | 65 |

Characterization of Data | 66 |

Statistical Models | 70 |

4 Probability of Occurrence of Given Deviations Predicted by the Gaussian | 78 |

Applications of Statistical Models | 79 |

6 Examples of Error Intervals for a Single Measurement x 100 | 84 |

Error Propagation | 85 |

Optimization of Counting Experiments | 92 |

Limits of Detectability | 94 |

Distribution of Time Intervals | 99 |

General Properties of Radiation Detectors | 105 |

Modes of Detector Operation | 106 |

Pulse Height Spectra | 112 |

Counting Curves and Plateaus | 113 |

Energy Resolution | 115 |

Detection Efficiency | 118 |

Dead Time | 121 |

Ionization Chambers | 131 |

1 Values of the Energy Dissipation per Ion Pair the WValue for Different Gases | 132 |

Charge Migration and Collection | 135 |

Design and Operation of DC Ion Chambers | 138 |

Radiation Dose Measurement with Ion Chambers | 142 |

2 Thicknesses of Ionization Chamber Walls Required for Establishment of Electronic | 144 |

Applications of DC Ion Chambers | 146 |

Pulse Mode Operation | 149 |

Proportional Counters | 159 |

Design Features of Proportional Counters | 164 |

Proportional Counter Performance | 169 |

1 Diethorn Parameters for Proportional Gases | 172 |

3 Gain Pulse Height Variations in a Proportional Counter | 178 |

Detection Efficiency and Counting Curves | 184 |

Variants of the Proportional Counter Design | 189 |

4 Spectral Properties of Light Emitted in Gas Proportional Scintillation Counters | 194 |

Micropattern Gas Detectors | 195 |

GeigerMueller Counters | 207 |

The Geiger Discharge | 208 |

Fill Gases | 210 |

Time Behavior | 212 |

The Geiger Counting Plateau | 214 |

Design Features | 216 |

Counting Efficiency | 217 |

TimetoFirstCount Method | 219 |

GM Survey Meters | 220 |

Scintillation Detector Principles | 223 |

Organic Scintillators | 224 |

1 Properties of Some Commercially Available Organic Scintillators | 230 |

Inorganic Scintillators | 235 |

3 Properties of Common Inorganic Scintillators | 238 |

4 Properties of Gas Scintillators at Atmospheric Pressure | 256 |

Light Collection And Scintillator Mounting | 258 |

5 Typical Light Yield for Fiber Scintillators | 267 |

Photomultiplier Tubes and Photodiodes | 275 |

The Photocathode | 276 |

Electron Multiplication | 280 |

Photomultiplier Tube Characteristics | 283 |

1 Properties of Some Commercially Available Photomultiplier Tubes | 289 |

Predicted Response Functions | 326 |

Properties of Scintillation GammaRay Spectrometers | 338 |

Response of Scintillation Detectors to Neutrons | 355 |

Electron Spectroscopy with Scintillators | 356 |

Specialized Detector Configurations Based on Scintillation | 357 |

1 | 364 |

Semiconductor Diode Detectors | 365 |

1 Properties of Intrinsic Silicon and Germanium | 368 |

2 Parameters of the 252Cf Fission Fragment Spectrum | 406 |

1 | 408 |

Germanium GammaRay Detectors | 415 |

Table A 1 | 451 |

Other SolidState Detectors | 467 |

Photon Intensities per Disintegration of 241Am | 478 |

Properties of Semiconductor Materials | 492 |

Some Alternative Compound Semiconductor Materials | 499 |

Comparison of Electrical and Charge Transport Properties of DirectConversion | 513 |

Slow Neutron Detection Methods | 519 |

Properties of Emitter Materials for SPN Detectors Based on Beta Decay | 547 |

Fast Neutron Detection and Spectroscopy | 553 |

Properties of Some Commercially Available Lithium Glass Scintillators | 564 |

Maximum Fractional Energy Transfer in Neutron Elastic Scattering | 571 |

Pulse Processing | 595 |

Properties of Coaxial Cables | 600 |

Summary of Common PulseProcessing Functions | 611 |

Pulse Shaping Counting and Timing | 625 |

Contents | 643 |

Pulse Height Analysis Systems | 647 |

Digital Pulse Processing | 668 |

Some Examples of Fast AnalogtoDigital Converters | 674 |

Systems Involving Pulse Timing | 680 |

Pulse Shape Discrimination | 700 |

Multichannel Pulse Analysis | 705 |

General Multichannel Characteristics | 707 |

The Multichannel Analyzer | 711 |

Spectrum Stabilization and Relocation | 721 |

Spectrum Analysis | 724 |

Miscellaneous Detector Types | 733 |

GasFilled Detectors in SelfQuenched Streamer Mode | 735 |

HighPressure Xenon Spectrometers | 738 |

Liquid Ionization and Proportional Counters | 739 |

Cryogenic Detectors | 741 |

Photographic Emulsions | 748 |

Thermoluminescent Dosimeters and Image Plates | 751 |

TrackEtch Detectors | 759 |

Commonly Used TrackEtch Materials | 761 |

Superheated Drop or Bubble Detectors | 764 |

Neutron Detection by Activation | 767 |

Materials Useful as Slow Neutron Activation Detectors | 770 |

Detection Methods Based on Integrated Circuit Components | 774 |

Background and Detector Shielding | 779 |

Levels of Activities from Natural Sources in Common Construction Materials | 782 |

Background in GammaRay Spectra | 784 |

Background in Other Detectors | 789 |

Alpha Particle Emission Rates from Various Materials | 790 |

Shielding Materials | 791 |

Active Methods of Background Reduction | 795 |

Appendix A The NIM CAMAC and VME Instrumentation Standards | 801 |

NIM Standard Logic Levels | 802 |

Appendix B Derivation of the Expression for Sample Variance in Chapter 3 | 807 |

Statistical Behavior of Counting Data for Variable Mean Value | 809 |

The ShockleyRamo Theorem for Induced Charge | 813 |

819 | |

825 | |

### Common terms and phrases

absorber absorption active volume alpha particles anode applications atomic number avalanche background beta particles bremsstrahlung capacitance Chapter charge carriers charged particles circuit common constant corresponding counting rate crystal decay depletion detection distribution drift effects efficiency electric field electron–hole pairs emission emitted energy loss energy resolution factor fast neutron Figure fission fraction gamma gamma-ray gamma-ray energies germanium detectors IEEE Trans incident input Instrum interaction ion chamber ion pairs ionization layer linear material measurement Meth multiplication NaI(Tl Neutron Detection neutron energy noise normally Nucl nuclear operation output pulse peak photocathode photoelectrons photomultiplier tube photon pile-up pixel PM tube preamplifier produced proportional counters pulse amplitude pulse height spectrum pulse shape radiation detectors range rays reaction recoil result scattering scintillation semiconductor semiconductor detectors shown in Fig silicon spectra spectroscopy statistical surface temperature thermal thickness typical voltage