Language and history in early Britain: a chronological survey of the Brittonic languages, first to twelfth century A.D.
The history of British language and its descendants, Welsh, Cornish and Breton, before the Norman Conquest is very imperfectly known. An attempt is made here to trace, from all available evidence, their development from the first to the twelfth century, and especially to analyse the chronology of their sound changes. Part I deals with the sources, such as Romano-British and post-Roman inscriptions; names in Classical authors; early Welsh, Cornish and Breton documents; the Latin loanwords in British and Irish; and many British place-names in English, which can only be adequately understood when fitted into such a chronological scheme. Part II sets out in detail the probable dates of the linguistic developments concerned.
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already Anglo-Saxon appears became Book of Llandaff borrowed Breton British Latin Brittonic Celtic Chad CIIC consonant Cornish Cornwall Cothriche Cumbric derived early sixth century eighth century Ekwall eleventh English epenthesis evidence examples fact fifth final syllables Forster Gaul glosses Gr.OI Grandgent Hence Ifor Williams inscriptions internal affection intervocal Irish language Late Brit later Latin loanwords lenition Lland loans loanwords loss of final Loth mid sixth century middle Mod.B Mod.C Mod.W Morris Jones Nash Williams native Nennius ninth Ogam older palatalised Pedersen perhaps period place-names Pr.AS Pr.I Pr.W Pr.WCB Primitive Irish probably pronunciation Ptol RBES Richter Rom.-Brit Roman Britain Saxons second half seems seventh century sixth century sound sound-substitution spelling spelt stressed syncope tenth century Thurneysen unstressed Voc.C vowel affection Vulgar Latin Wales Welsh written