The Independent Carolina Baseball League, 1936-1938: Baseball Outlaws (Google eBook)
Shortly after the independent Carolina League was formed in 1936, officials of the National Association of Professional Baseball--which oversaw what was known as "organized baseball," including the major leagues--began a campaign to destroy the league. The NAPB declared the Carolina League "outlaw" and blacklisted its players because their teams were pirating professionally-contracted ballplayers with the lure of higher wages, small-town hero worship and a career off-season. Backed into a corner, the Carolina League wore its "outlaw" label with a defiant swagger, challenging the all-powerful monopoly of organized professional baseball and its standard player contract. This complete history of the league reveals how it persevered through three tumultuous seasons, fueled by the tight-knit community spirit of North Carolina Piedmont textile towns. Over its three seasons of existence, the Carolina League attracted professional baseball players from all over the country and it gave the players control over their careers, setting a standard that was resisted until free agency was adopted in 1973.
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Art Hord ballplayers baseball’s batting blacklist Bobby Hipps Bramham Broadus Culler Carolina State League Carolina Textile League catcher championship Charlotte Hornets Charlotte Observer club Coddle Creek Concord and Kannapolis Concord fans Concord Tribune Concord Weavers contract Cooleemee Doyle e›ort ﬁeld ﬁght ﬁnal ﬁnancial ﬁrst ﬁve Forest City franchise Gastonia gate receipts Hickory Hinson home runs Howard Moss independent independent baseball July June Kannapolis Towelers Landis leaders league directors league president league’s Lefty Lenoir Llewellyn Louis Cardinals Mack major leagues manager Marvin Watts mill teams Mooresville NAPBL North Carolina o›ered o‡cials olina League organized ball organized baseball outﬁelder outlaw baseball outlaw league Packard Philadelphia Athletics PHOTO COURTESY Piedmont League pitched pitcher Pitts play players playo reported roster Rutherford County salary limit Salisbury season semipro Shelby shortstop signed Smith Barrier star Steinecke team’s third baseman towns umpire Valdese Verner Vince Barton Webb Field winning