Aggression and Peacefulness in Humans and Other Primates (Google eBook)

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James Silverberg Professor of Anthropology (Emeritus), Milwaukee J. Patrick Gray Associate Professor of Anthropology both at the University of Wisconsin
Oxford University Press, Mar 11, 1992 - Science - 328 pages
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This book explores the role of aggression in primate social systems and its implications for human behavior. Many people look to primate studies to see if and how we might be able to predict violent behavior in humans, or ultimately to control war. Of particular interest in the study of primate aggression are questions such as: how do primates use aggression to maintain social organization; what are the costs of aggression; why do some primates avoid aggressive behavior altogether. Students and researchers in primatology, behavioral biology, anthropology, and psychology will read with interest as the editors and contributors to this book address these and other basic research questions about aggression. They bring new information to the topic as well as an integrated view of aggression that combines important evolutionary considerations with developmental, sociological and cultural perspectives.
  

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Contents

Violence and Peacefulness as Behavioral Potentialities of Primates
1
Terminology
2
Three Other Terminological Issues
12
Dominance Relations and Agonistic Activity
13
Use of Longterm Data
14
Improved Methodology
15
Dominance Consciousness
18
Polyadic Interactions
20
Acknowledgments
143
References
144
The Development of Agonistic and Affiliative Structures in Preschool Play Groups
150
Methods
154
Results
156
Principal Components of Dyadic Activity
157
Developmental Changes in Social Participation
158
Temporal Stability of Participation Factor Structures
159

Prosocial Aggression
21
Nonviolent Tactics
22
War and Peace
24
Summary
30
Notes
32
References
33
Aggression as a Wellintegrated Part of Primate Social Relationships A Critique of the Seville Statement on Violence
37
Traditional Emphasis in Biology
38
The Statements Ideological Nature
39
The Paradox of Constructive Aggression
42
Moralistic Aggression in Chimpanzees
43
Aggressive Socialization in Rhesus Monkeys
45
How Relationships Are Maintained
49
Conclusion
52
Summary
53
Dominance Hierarchies as Partial Orders A New Look at Old Ideas
57
Review
58
Equality
59
Outline of the Procedure
60
The Full Matrix
61
The Old Males
62
The New or Peripheral Males
63
The Young Natal Males
64
Matrix Permutation Procedures for Evaluating EQ and SST
65
Conclusion and Prospectus
66
Summary
67
References
68
Dominance Matrices
69
Determinants of Aggression in Squirrel Monkeys Saimiri
72
Aggression
73
Theoretical Integration
79
Adult Male Aggression
82
Subadult and Young Adult Male Aggression
83
Adult Females and Young
85
Evolutionary Selection and the CostsBenefits of Aggression
88
Toward a Comprehensive Theory
90
What is a Comprehensive Theory?
94
Acknowledgments
95
References
96
Causes and Consequences of Nonaggression in the Woolly Spider Monkey or Muriqui Brachyteles arachnoides
100
Constraints on Aggression
102
Evidence of Nonagression
103
Spatial Relations
105
Sexual Behavior
107
Affiliative Relationships
108
Consequences of Nonaggression
110
Summary
112
Acknowledgments
113
Research Methodology
115
The Development of Dominance Relations Before Puberty in Cercopithecine Societies
117
Study Groups Subjects and Methodology
122
Results
124
Dyadic Relations with Adult Females
125
Support and Aggression Received during Polyadic Interaction
126
Sexspecific Responses to the Challenge of Rank Acquisition Spacing Behavior
129
Discussion
130
Taxonomic Differences in Juvenile Male Dominance Relations
134
Future Research
138
Summary
141
Dominance and the Coordination of Affiliative Activity
162
Discussion
165
Summary
169
Variability in the Patterns of Agonistic Behavior of Preschool Children
172
Methodology
174
Results
175
Discussion
183
Summary
186
References
187
Cultures of War and Peace A Comparative Study of Waorani and Semai
189
Data Collection and Analysis
190
3 Construction of a Model of Waorani World View
191
The Semai
192
The Waorani
193
The Historical Contexts of Warfare and Nonviolence
196
The Waorani Culture of War
197
The Motivational Context of Waorani Warfare
198
Similarities
199
The End of Warfare
204
Discussion
206
Summary
208
Acknowledgments
210
References
211
The Rise Maintenance and Destruction of Peaceable Polity A Preliminary Essay in Political Ecology
214
Definitions of Peaceability
215
Pastoralists
220
Refuge
221
Transience of this Adaptation
223
Invaders Refugees Frontiers Ethnicity
224
Invader Power and Attitudes towards Refugees
225
Personal
228
Social
235
Conjectural History of this Adaptation
237
Destruction of Refuge
240
Destroying the Peace
241
Rise of New Ethnic Identities
242
Peaceable Intentional Societies
243
Shared Characteristics
244
Conclusion
250
An Adaptive Model of Peaceability
251
Summary
253
Acknowledgments
254
References
256
Social Structure Psychocultural Dispositions and Violent Conflict Extensions from a Crosscultural Study
271
The Concept of Conflict
272
Measuring Political Violence
273
Hypothesis about Societal Differences in Conflict Behavior
274
Social Structural Hypotheses
275
Psychocultural Hypotheses
277
Results
279
Extensions of the Model
283
Norway
284
Conclusion
285
Summary
286
References
288
Measures and Sources for the Independent Variables
292
The Seville Statement on Violence
295
Index
299
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